Blood volume, the venous system, preload, and cardiac output.

@article{Greenway1986BloodVT,
  title={Blood volume, the venous system, preload, and cardiac output.},
  author={C V Greenway and Wilford Wayne Lautt},
  journal={Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology},
  year={1986},
  volume={64 4},
  pages={383-7}
}
Cardiac output is determined by heart rate, by contractility (maximum systolic elastance, Emax) and afterload, and by diastolic ventricular compliance and preload. These relationships are illustrated using the pressure-volume loop. Diastolic compliance and Emax place limits determined by the heart within which the pressure-volume loop must lie. End-diastolic and end-systolic pressures and hence the exact position of the loop within these limits are determined by the peripheral circulation. In… CONTINUE READING

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