Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55 000 vascular deaths

@article{Lewington2007BloodCA,
  title={Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55 000 vascular deaths},
  author={Sarah Lewington and Gary George Whitlock and Robert J. Clarke and Paul Sherliker and Jonathan R. Emberson and Jim Halsey and Nawab Qizilbash and Richard Peto and Rory Collins},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2007},
  volume={370},
  pages={1829-1839}
}
Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.
TLDR
Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparaelastic hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP andTotal cholesterol were observed for stroke.
Relation Between Serum Total Cholesterol Level and Cardiovascular Disease Stratified by Sex and Age Group: A Pooled Analysis of 65 594 Individuals From 10 Cohort Studies in Japan
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High serum TC levels are associated with coronary heart disease in middle-aged Japanese men and women, but evidence in elderly Japanese individuals is still limited.
Sex-specific relevance of diabetes to occlusive vascular and other mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual data from 980 793 adults from 68 prospective studies
  • L WG J J X HC D AJ MH DR DA SAE H P R R RR JR M S N Gnatiuc Herrington Halsey Tuomilehto Fang Kim De B, L. Gnatiuc, Xh Zhang
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Association of coronary heart disease mortality with risk factors according to length of follow-up and serum cholesterol level in men: the Oslo Study cohort
TLDR
Conventional risk factors and nonfasting triglycerides increased CHD mortality across all periods of follow-up supporting the idea that lowering cholesterol should be the primary target of primary prevention.
Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the incidence of coronary heart disease among Japanese: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS).
TLDR
Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol are associated with an increased risk ofCHD with a threshold around 140 mg/dL, suggesting that the optimal cut-off point for healthy per-sons to prevent increasing the risk of CHD might be around 140mg/dL non- HDL- cholesterol.
Heart rate and mortality from cardiovascular causes: a 12 year follow-up study of 379,843 men and women aged 40-45 years.
TLDR
In this cohort of middle-aged men and women, a crude association between heart rate and death from CVDs was greatly weakened, suggesting that an increased heart rate in middle age may be a marker of high cardiovascular risk, but is not an independent risk factor.
Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio versus non-HDL-C as predictors for ischemic heart disease: a 17-year follow-up study of women in southern Sweden
TLDR
TC/HDL-C ratio and non-HDL -C are both clinical predictors for IHD in middle-aged women and may be easier to calculate and interpret in clinical practice, for early identification of future ischemic heart disease in women.
Stroke and coronary heart disease: predictive power of standard risk factors into old age—long-term cumulative risk study among men in Gothenburg, Sweden
TLDR
Traditional risk factors based on age, sex, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, and smoking status can effectively be used to predict CHD but not stroke to the same extent.
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References

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The pattern of the association between plasma cholesterol and risk of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease was not log linear, and the increased risk was confined to the upper 5% of the cholesterol distribution.
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In this prospective study of middle-aged and elderly men from a healthy, working population, an independent negative association between HDL-C and ischemic stroke mortality during a long-term (21-year) follow-up is demonstrated.
Joint Effects of Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Cholesterol on Cardiovascular Disease in the Asia Pacific Region
TLDR
In Asia-Pacific populations, there are hazards of increasing SBP at all cholesterol levels and hazards of increase cholesterol at all levels of SBP, but the associations ofSBP with CHD risk and ischemic stroke risk are slightly steeper among those with low cholesterol levels.
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TLDR
It is concluded that there is an inverse relation between the serum cholesterol level and the risk of death from hemorrhagic stroke in middle-aged American men, but that its public health impact is overwhelmed by the positive association of higher serum cholesterol levels with death from nonhemorrhagic stroke and total cardiovascular disease.
HDL-Cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the risk of stroke in middle-aged British men.
TLDR
Higher levels of HDL cholesterol were associated with a significant decrease in risk of stroke even after adjustment for potential confounders and the marked inverse association between HDL cholesterol and stroke seen in hypertensives emphasizes the importance of those modifiable risk factors for stroke known to lower the concentrations of HDLolesterol.
Combined effects of systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol on cardiovascular disease risk.
TLDR
This meta-analysis differs from previous studies in several ways: It is the largest study from this region, involving >3000 CHD events and 4000 stroke events; individual records were available for each of the participants in each study, with cause and age of death (if applicable); and information on several thousand repeat measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol made during prolonged follow-up allowed correction for "regression dilution".
Plasma Lipid Profile and Incident Ischemic Stroke: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
TLDR
The relation of circulating cholesterol to ischemic stroke does not resemble its well-known relation to coronary heart disease.
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