OBJECTIVES To provide a review of the concepts and concerns for each phase of blood cell transplantation (BCT). DATA SOURCES Review articles, research studies, abstracts, and book chapters related to BCT. CONCLUSIONS The evaluation of BCT as a major treatment option for a growing number of diseases will challenge nursing professionals. BCT is a complex process that requires conceptual knowledge as well as technical skills. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Comprehending specific concepts related to patient eligibility, mobilization, apheresis, cryopreservation, dose-intensive therapy, reinfusion, and marrow engraftment is essential to providing quality nursing care to patients undergoing BCT.