PDGF-D promotes cell growth, aggressiveness, angiogenesis and EMT transformation of colorectal cancer by activation of Notch1/Twist1 pathway
Renal cell carcinoma is a highly malignant and often fatal disease of the kidney. It is difficult to treat, often because metastases are common at the time of presentation. Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) is a newly discovered member of the PDGF family; its function in tumor progression is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression level of PDGF-D in human renal cell carcinoma by immunohistochemical staining using tissue arrays. We showed that human renal cell carcinoma expresses high levels of PDGF-D protein. The human renal cell carcinoma cell line SN12-C was stably transfected with pdgf-d cDNA. Overexpression of PDGF-D in SN12-C cells promoted tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of human renal cell carcinoma in an orthotopic severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. PDGF-D overproduction in SN12-C cells increased the proliferation and migration of mural cells in vitro and improved perivascular cell coverage in vivo. Overexpression of PDGF-D led to increased expression of angiopoietin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in tumor tissues. ShRNAi and Gleevec were used to block PDGF-D expression and PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) signaling. Inhibition of PDGF-D expression by short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) and blockage of PDGFRbeta signaling by Gleevec inhibited the growth and lung metastasis of SN12-C cells grown orthotopically in SCID mice. Thus, PDGF-D is a potential candidate for controlling the progression of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This opens up an avenue of investigation into novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, including the use of recently developed tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as Gleevec, which inhibit PDGF activity through inhibition of its receptor tyrosine kinase.