Blink reflex to supraorbital nerve stimulation in the cat

  title={Blink reflex to supraorbital nerve stimulation in the cat},
  author={Mark S. LeDoux and Joan F. Lorden and Angela D. Weir and Jason M. Smith},
  journal={Experimental Brain Research},
Abstract Neurophysiological studies of the blink reflex to supraorbital nerve stimulation were conducted in eight alert, adult male cats. The cat, like other mammals, shows both short-latency (R1) and long-latency (R2) orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OOemg) components. Measures of OOemg latency, duration, integrated area, and maximum amplitude (MA) were obtained at a stimulus magnitude of 1.5×R2 threshold. The mean (±SE) minimal latencies for R1 and R2 were 8.26±0.85 and 22.97±1.53 ms… 

A neurophysiological approach to brainstem reflexes. Blink reflex

  • Á. Esteban
  • Biology, Medicine
    Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology
  • 1999

Electrically induced blink reflex and facial motor nerve stimulation in beagles.

The potential usefulness of the electrically elicited blink reflex test in the diagnosis of peripheral facial and trigeminal dysfunction in dogs was demonstrated and the muscle-evoked potentials evoked by stimulation of the facial nerve were demonstrated.

Physiological and anatomical evidence for an inhibitory trigemino‐oculomotor pathway in the cat

A trigemino‐oculomotor pathway that inhibits levator palpebrae motoneurons in response to blink‐producing periorbital stimuli is characterized.

Trigeminal high-frequency stimulation produces short- and long-term modification of reflex blink gain.

The ability of repeated HFS-B treatment to depress trigeminal blink circuit activity long term implied that it may be a useful protocol to reduce hyperexcitable blink circuits that underlie diseases like benign essential blepharospasm.

Experiential Modification of the Trigeminal Reflex Blink Circuit

Results revealed that blink-evoking stimuli acted as a “presynaptic input” and blink circuit activity acted as an “postsynaptic spike”, which may create the maladaptive reorganization of trigeminal inputs in diseases such as hemifacial spasm.

Macaque monkey trigeminal blink reflex circuits targeting orbicularis oculi motoneurons

The findings indicate that the assignment of the R1 and R2 components of the blink reflex to different parts of the trigeminal sensory complex cannot be exclusively based on subdivision connectional relationships with facial motoneurons.

The distribution of primary afferent terminals from the eyelids of macaque monkeys

The presence of a single major site of eyelid primary afferent terminals suggests that sensory input for both eyelid proprioception and blink-reflex activation passes through this segment of the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

Blink-related sensorimotor anatomy in the rat

The comprehensive description of blink-related sensorimotor anatomy in rats will provide a foundation for future physiological studies of blinking and help to understand the innervation of muscles involved in closing and opening the eyes.

Animal Models for Investigating Benign Essential Blepharospasm

  • C. Evinger
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current neuropharmacology
  • 2013
One animal model attempts to mimic the predisposing condition and environmental trigger that give rise to BEB and indicates that abnormal interactions among trigeminal blink circuits, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum are the neural basis for BEB.



Reactivated response of blink reflex in the cat.

Three reflex responses in the orbicularis oculi muscles were observed by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve in lightly anesthetized or conscious cats and the third response was concluded as being a "reactivated response" of the blink reflex.

Blink reflex excitability cycle in hemifacial spasm

It is suggested that there is enhanced excitability of facial motoneurons and of those brainstem interneurons that mediate the blink reflex pathway in patients with HFS and patients with longer disease duration showed more striking abnormalities of the recovery curve.

Blink reflex recovery curves in blepharospasm, torticollis spasmodica, and hemifacial spasm

The R2 index was abnormal in 67% of BSP patients, 37% of TS patients, and 50% of HFS patients on the affected side and 20% on the unaffected side, which may indicate that different pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in this type of focal dystonia.

Mechanisms involved in the cat's blink reflex.

Recordings from peripheral filaments provide no evidence for the presence of afferent fibers from muscle spindles or other types of proprioceptors in the facial and trigeminal nerves, but it is considered that such afferents may serve a proprioceptive function in monitoring the degree of contraction of the facial muscles.

Conditions that affect the thresholds of the components of the eyeblink reflex in humans.

Variations in the testing environmental contribute to the discrepancy between data showing unequal threshold for elicitation of the R1 and R2 components and reports showing equal thresholds, and are another illustration of the ability of complex psychological events to selectively affect different reflex pathways.

Reflex arc of the first component of the human blink reflex: a single motoneurone study.

It is concluded that the first component of the blink reflex is conducted through an oligosynaptic arc including one or more interneurones.

Electromyography and recovery of the blink reflex in involuntary eyelid closure: a comparative study.

The results provide further evidence that physiologically blepharospasm is not a homogeneous disease entity, and indicate that different pathophysiological mechanisms at the suprasegmental, or segmental level, or both are involved.