OBJECTIVES The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of endometriosis of the bladder is reviewed. Although it is relatively uncommon, it should be taken into account when making the differential diagnosis in young females presenting with dysuria. METHODS/RESULTS A young female patient with dysuria and hypogastric pain caused by endometriosis of the bladder is described. CONCLUSIONS Diagnosis is basically by cystoscopic exploration and histological analyses of the specimens obtained by electrofulguration. Hormone therapy with Danazol may be effective in some cases. The most effective treatment is excision of the lesion by TUR or conventional surgery. Furthermore, laser could be useful in the treatment of this pathology.