Bladder cancer detection and surveillance: carcinoembryonic antigen as a monitor of neoplastic transformation.


Routine cytopathology of exfoliated urothelial cells will identify only 70% of patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) because most well-differentiated bladder tumors are not detected. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was identified on urothelial cancer cells from 66% of patients with grade I TCC, 65% with grade II TCC, 65% with grade III TCC, and 80… (More)


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