Prediction and diagnosis of bladder cancer recurrence based on urinary content of hTERT, SENP1, PPP1CA, and MCM5 transcripts
Early detection of bladder cancer and its recurrences is essential for improved prognosis and long-term survival. The detection and follow-up of these patients is currently based on cystoscopy, which is expensive and invasive, and, in most cases, cytology, which is non-invasive but not very sensitive. During recent years, many urine-based tests have been developed and tested in different patient populations. In this review we discuss new developments for biomarkers in bladder cancer that have potential use in surveillance and screening. In almost all publications authors compare sensitivity of the test with a concomitantly executed cystoscopy, for example, determine cross-sectional sensitivity. However, it has also been shown that false positive test results may be followed by a positive cystoscopy in the near future, showing that cystoscopy itself does not provide 100% sensitivity. This suggests that for a proper evaluation of urine-based tests, longitudinal studies should be carried out and the results communicated to the urologist.