Black yeast symbionts compromise the efficiency of antibiotic defenses in fungus-growing ants.

@article{Little2008BlackYS,
  title={Black yeast symbionts compromise the efficiency of antibiotic defenses in fungus-growing ants.},
  author={Ainslie E. F. Little and C. Currie},
  journal={Ecology},
  year={2008},
  volume={89 5},
  pages={
          1216-22
        }
}
Multiplayer symbioses are common in nature, but our understanding of the ecological dynamics occurring in complex symbioses is limited. The tripartite mutualism between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, and antibiotic-producing bacteria exemplifies symbiotic complexity. Here we reveal how black yeasts, newly described symbionts of the ant-microbe system, compromise the efficiency of bacteria-derived antibiotic defense in fungus-growing ants. We found that symbiotic black yeasts… Expand
Symbiotic complexity: discovery of a fifth symbiont in the attine ant–microbe symbiosis
TLDR
It is shown that black yeasts are commonly associated with fungus-growing ants, occurring throughout their geographical distribution, and molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal that the blackYeasts form a derived monophyletic lineage associated with the phylogenetic diversity of fungus growers. Expand
Insect Symbioses: A Case Study of Past, Present, and Future Fungus-Growing Ant Research*
TLDR
The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-funki, yeasts, and bacteria. Expand
Symbiont-Mediated Host-Parasite Dynamics in a Fungus-Gardening Ant
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the susceptibility to Escovopsis infection was an outcome of ant-cultivar-Escovopsis interaction, rather than solely due to ant genotype or fungal cultivar lineage, and suggested that switching M. smithii farmers onto novel fungus types might be a strategy to generate novel ant-fungus combinations resistant to most, but perhaps not all, Escovosis strains circulating in a local population of this and other lower-attine ants. Expand
Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria
Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genusExpand
Symbiont recruitment versus ant-symbiont co-evolution in the attine ant-microbe symbiosis.
  • U. Mueller
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Current opinion in microbiology
  • 2012
TLDR
Recent research could not verify earlier conclusions regarding antibiotic-secreting, integumental Pseudonocardia that co-evolve to specifically suppress Escovopsis disease in an ancient co-Evolutionary arms-race. Expand
Antagonistic interactions between garden yeasts and microfungal garden pathogens of leaf-cutting ants
TLDR
These garden yeasts add to the growing list of disease-suppressing microbes in attine nests that may contribute synergistically, together with actinomycetes and Burkholderia bacteria, to protect the gardens and the ants against diseases. Expand
Pseudonocardia Symbionts of Fungus-Growing Ants and the Evolution of Defensive Secondary Metabolism
TLDR
A multi-level model for the evolution of Pseudonocardia and their secondary metabolites that includes symbiont transmission within and between ant colonies, and the potentially independent movement and diversification of their secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes is proposed. Expand
Soluble Compounds of Filamentous Fungi Harm the Symbiotic Fungus of Leafcutter Ants
TLDR
The antagonism of filamentous fungi isolated from different sources are shown, and the negative impacts of their metabolites on the growth of the ant-fungal cultivar are demonstrated. Expand
Chemical warfare between fungus-growing ants and their pathogens
TLDR
The ant nest metabolome is further complicated by competition between defensive bacteria, which produce antibacterials active against even closely related species. Expand
Generalized antifungal activity and 454-screening of Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis bacteria in nests of fungus-growing ants
TLDR
It is concluded that attine-associated pseudonocardiaceous bacteria do not exhibit derived antibiotic properties to specifically suppress Escovopsis, and an alternate conceptual framework is developed to replace the prevailing Pseudonocardia-Escovopsis coevolution model. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES
Symbiotic complexity: discovery of a fifth symbiont in the attine ant–microbe symbiosis
TLDR
It is shown that black yeasts are commonly associated with fungus-growing ants, occurring throughout their geographical distribution, and molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal that the blackYeasts form a derived monophyletic lineage associated with the phylogenetic diversity of fungus growers. Expand
Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites
TLDR
A new, third mutualist in this symbiosis is described, a filamentous bacterium (actinomycete) of the genus Streptomyces that produces antibiotics specifically targeted to suppress the growth of the specialized garden-parasite Escovopsis. Expand
Experimental evidence of a tripartite mutualism: bacteria protect ant fungus gardens from specialized parasites
TLDR
It is suggested that mutualisms between antibiotic-producing microbes and higher organisms may be common associations that are mostly overlooked and that the role of symbionts in reducing the impact of parasites is likely an important aspect in the cost-benefit assessment of mutualisms. Expand
The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens.
TLDR
The increased virulence of pathogens associated with ancient asexual cultivars suggests an evolutionary cost to cultivar clonality, perhaps resulting from slower evolutionary rates of cultivars in the coevolutionary race with their pathogens. Expand
Pathogenicity of Escovopsis weberi: The parasite of the attine ant-microbe symbiosis directly consumes the ant-cultivated fungus
TLDR
E. weberi is a necrotrophic parasite of the fungal cultivar of attine ants and can secrete compounds that break down host mycelium before contact occurs, unlike invasive necrotrophs that always penetrate host hyphae. Expand
Weeding and grooming of pathogens in agriculture by ants
  • C. Currie, A. Stuart
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2001
TLDR
Ants' ability to remove alien microbes physically by infecting Atta colombica gardens with the generalist pathogen Trichoderma viride and the specialist pathogen Escovopsis was examined, suggesting this specialized pathogen has evolved counter-adaptations in order to overcome the sanitary defences of the ants. Expand
Phylogenetic analysis of mutualistic filamentous bacteria associated with fungus-growing ants.
TLDR
The first phylogenetic analysis of the filamentous mutualistic bacteria (actinomycetes) associated with fungus-growing ants is conducted, suggesting multiple acquisitions of actinomyCetes by fungus- growing ants over their evolutionary history. Expand
Coevolved Crypts and Exocrine Glands Support Mutualistic Bacteria in Fungus-Growing Ants
TLDR
It is shown that ants rear the antibiotic-producing bacteria in elaborate cuticular crypts, supported by unique exocrine glands, and that these structures have been highly modified across the ants' evolutionary history. Expand
Ancient Host–Pathogen Associations Maintained by Specificity of Chemotaxis and Antibiosis
TLDR
It is shown that parasitic fungal species in the genus Escovopsis, which attack and consume the fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants, are attracted to their hosts via chemotaxis, thereby constraining long-term dynamics of host–parasite coevolution within this ancient association. Expand
The players in a mutualistic symbiosis: insects, bacteria, viruses, and virulence genes.
TLDR
It is proposed that, in these mutualistic symbionts, phage-borne toxin genes provide defense to the aphid host and are a basis for the observed protection against eukaryotic parasites. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...