Black yeast symbionts compromise the efficiency of antibiotic defenses in fungus-growing ants.

@article{Little2008BlackYS,
  title={Black yeast symbionts compromise the efficiency of antibiotic defenses in fungus-growing ants.},
  author={Ainslie E. F. Little and Cameron R. Currie},
  journal={Ecology},
  year={2008},
  volume={89 5},
  pages={
          1216-22
        }
}
Multiplayer symbioses are common in nature, but our understanding of the ecological dynamics occurring in complex symbioses is limited. The tripartite mutualism between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, and antibiotic-producing bacteria exemplifies symbiotic complexity. Here we reveal how black yeasts, newly described symbionts of the ant-microbe system, compromise the efficiency of bacteria-derived antibiotic defense in fungus-growing ants. We found that symbiotic black yeasts… 

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