Black smokers, massive sulphides and vent biota at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

@article{Rona1986BlackSM,
  title={Black smokers, massive sulphides and vent biota at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge},
  author={Peter A. Rona and G. P. Klinkhammer and T. A. Nelsen and John H. Trefry and Henry Elderfield},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1986},
  volume={321},
  pages={33-37}
}
The discovery of black smokers, massive sulphides and vent biota in the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge demonstrates that this assemblage of hydrothermal phenomena is not limited to intermediate-to-fast-spreading oceanic ridges. Hydrothermal exchange processes may thus be important at the ridges which extend through the Atlantic Ocean and western Indian Ocean, comprising more than half of the 55,000-km global length of seafloor spreading centres.