Black hole in three-dimensional spacetime.

@article{Baados1992BlackHI,
  title={Black hole in three-dimensional spacetime.},
  author={Ba{\~n}ados and Teitel'boim and Zanelli},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={1992},
  volume={69 13},
  pages={
          1849-1851
        }
}
The standard Einstein-Maxwell equations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, with a negative cosmological constant, admit a black hole solution. The 2+1 black hole---characterized by mass, angular momentum, and charge, defined by flux integrals at infinity---is quite similar to its 3+1 counterpart. Anti--de Sitter space appears as a negative energy state separated by a mass gap from the continuous black hole spectrum. Evaluation of the partition function yields that the entropy is equal to twice the… 

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