# Black hole evaporation without information loss

@article{Stephens1994BlackHE, title={Black hole evaporation without information loss}, author={Christopher R. Stephens and Gerard 't Hooft and Bernard F Whiting}, journal={Classical and Quantum Gravity}, year={1994}, volume={11}, pages={621-647} }

An approach to black hole quantization is proposed wherein it is assumed that quantum coherence is preserved. After giving our motivations for such a quantization procedure we formulate the background field approximation, in which particles are divided into `hard' particles and `soft' particles. The background spacetime metric depends both on the in-states and on the out-states. A consequence of our approach is that four-geometries describing gravitational collapse will show the same…

## 276 Citations

Black holes, information, and Hilbert space for quantum gravity

- Physics
- 2013

A coarse-grained description for the formation and evaporation of a black hole is given within the framework of a unitary theory of quantum gravity preserving locality, without dropping the…

Long time black hole evaporation with bounded Hawking flux

- Physics
- 2004

The long time behaviour of an evaporating black hole presents a challenge to theoretical physics and touches relevant conceptual issues of quantum gravity, such as the information paradox. There are…

The hidden horizon and black hole unitarity

- Physics
- 2010

We motivate through a detailed analysis of the Hawking radiation in a Schwarzschild background a scheme in accordance with quantum unitarity. In this scheme the semi-classical approximation of the…

Quantum black holes in loop quantum gravity

- Physics
- 2014

We study the quantization of spherically symmetric vacuum spacetimes within loop quantum gravity. In particular, we give additional details about our previous work in which we showed that one could…

Quantum-gravity effects outside the horizon spark black to white hole tunneling

- Physics
- 2014

We show that there is a classical metric satisfying the Einstein equations outside a finite spacetime region where matter collapses into a black hole and then emerges from a white hole. We compute…

Black holes, entropies, and semiclassical spacetime in quantum gravity

- Physics
- 2014

A bstractWe present a coherent picture of the quantum mechanics of black holes. The picture does not require the introduction of any drastically new physical effect beyond what is already known; it…

Relativeness in quantum gravity: limitations and frame dependence of semiclassical descriptions

- Physics
- 2014

A bstractConsistency between quantum mechanical and general relativistic views of the world is a longstanding problem, which becomes particularly prominent in black hole physics. We develop a…

Unitarity and the information problem in an explicit model of black hole evaporation

- PhysicsClassical and Quantum Gravity
- 2020

We consider the black hole information problem in an explicitly defined spacetime modeling black hole evaporation. Using this context we review basic aspects of the problem, with a particular effort…

Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

- Physics
- 2005

A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES

Notes on black-hole evaporation

- Physics
- 1976

This paper examines various aspects of black-hole evaporation. A two-dimensional model is investigated where it is shown that using fermion-boson cancellation on the stress-energy tensor reduces the…

On particle creation by black holes

- Physics
- 1975

Hawking's analysis of particle creation by black holes is extended by explicitly obtaining the expression for the quantum mechanical state vector ψ which results from particle creation starting from…

Evanescent black holes.

- PhysicsPhysical review. D, Particles and fields
- 1992

A renormalizable theory of quantum gravity coupled to a dilaton and conformal matter in two spacetime dimensions is analyzed and suggests that the collapsing matter radiates away all of its energy before an event horizon has a chance to form, and black holes disappear from the quantum-mechanical spectrum.

Energy-momentum tensor near an evaporating black hole

- Physics
- 1976

We calculate the vacuum expectation value, T/sub ..mu nu../, of the energy--momentum tensor of a massless scalar field in a general two-dimensional spacetime and evaluate it in a two-dimensional…

Nonexistence of baryon number for static black holes

- Physics
- 1972

Wheeler has conjectured that black holes should have no well-defined baryon number, and that as a result the law of conservation of baryons should be transcended in black-hole physics. We show here…

Particle creation by black holes

- Physics
- 1975

AbstractIn the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were…

The stretched horizon and black hole complementarity.

- PhysicsPhysical review. D, Particles and fields
- 1993

Three postulates asserting the validity of conventional quantum theory, semiclassical general relativity, and the statistical basis for thermodynamics are introduced as a foundation for the study of…

Breakdown of Predictability in Gravitational Collapse

- Physics
- 1976

The principle of equivalence, which says that gravity couples to the energy-momentum tensor of matter, and the quantum-mechanical requirement that energy should be positive imply that gravity is…