Black-Box Concurrent Zero-Knowledge Requires (Almost) Logarithmically Many Rounds

  title={Black-Box Concurrent Zero-Knowledge Requires (Almost) Logarithmically Many Rounds},
  author={Ran Canetti and Joe Kilian and Erez Petrank and Alon Rosen},
  journal={SIAM J. Comput.},
We show that any concurrent zero-knowledge protocol for a non-trivial language (i.e., for a language outside BPP), whose security is proven via black-box simulation, must use at least ~ (log n) rounds of interaction. This result achieves a substantial improvement over previous lower bounds, and is the rst bound to rule out the possibility of constant-round concurrent zero-knowledge when proven via black-box simulation. Furthermore, the bound is polynomially related to the number of rounds in… CONTINUE READING
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