Bitcoin's growing e-waste problem

  title={Bitcoin's growing e-waste problem},
  author={Alex de Vries and Christian Stoll},
  journal={Resources, Conservation and Recycling},
Towards an Evaluation Metric for Carbon-Emitting Energy Provenance of Bitcoin Transactions
An approach to evaluating the carbon-emitting energy provenance of Bitcoin transactions and transaction outputs is presented, and an outline of an incentivization strategy in the form of a blockchain-based carbon-offsetting oracle that would track the creation and exchange of offsets based on the metrics proposed is offered.
The Role of Crypto Trading in the Economy, Renewable Energy Consumption and Ecological Degradation
The findings concluded that the increasing crypto trading led to enhanced GDP, real gross fixed capital formation, and globalisation, however, in the long run, the relationship between crypto trading and the share of renewable energies in total energy consumption was not confirmed by the empirical results.
Based on the Time-Spatial Power-Based Cryptocurrency Miner Driving Force Model, Establish a Global CO2 Emission Prediction Framework after China Bans Cryptocurrency
The 10-year time series data on energy consumption dataset of global top-25 cryptocurrencies for the first time is obtained, and both the temporal coverage and the spatiotemporal resolution of the data exceed previous studies.
Evaluation of Green Alternatives for Blockchain Proof-of-Work (PoW) Approach
This paper surveys the currently available alternative approaches to PoW and evaluates their applicability - especially their appropriateness in terms of greenness.
Tangle 2.0 Leaderless Nakamoto Consensus on the Heaviest DAG
The theoretical foundations of the Tangle 2.0 are introduced and a framework to analyse liveness and safety under different communication and adversary models is proposed, allowing providing impossibility results in some edge cases and in the asynchronous communication model.
Blockchain Synchronous Trust Consensus Model
Results show that this new model proves the feasibility of an indefinitely expandable blockchain distributed ledger capability, while also providing a new participant incentive that is highly effective in engaging a community of practitioners.
  • M. Promentilla, L. Hill
  • Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management
  • 2022


A Cost of Production Model for Bitcoin
As bitcoin becomes more important as a worldwide financial phenomenon, it also becomes important to understand its sources of value formation. There are three ways to obtain bitcoins: buy them
The Carbon Footprint of Bitcoin
Summary Participation in the Bitcoin blockchain validation process requires specialized hardware and vast amounts of electricity, which translates into a significant carbon footprint. Here, we
The Global E-waste Monitor 2020: Quantities, flows and the circular economy potential
This monitor provides the most comprehensive update of global e-waste statistics. In 2019, the world generated a striking 53.6 Mt of e-waste, an average of 7.3 kg per capita. The global generation of
3rd Global Cryptoasset Benchmarking Study
This report reviews the impact of significant changes in the industry since the publication of the 2nd Global Cryptoasset Benchmarking Study in 2018. It provides novel insights into the state of the
E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management
In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed. Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential