• Corpus ID: 236214795

Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System

  title={Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System},
  author={Satoshi Nakamoto},
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof… 

Bitcoin Plus: Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with Proof-of-Stake

Under this hybrid design proof-of-work mainly provides initial minting and is largely non-essential in the long run thus providing an energy-efficient and more cost-competitive peer-to-peer crypto-currency.

Bitcoin – a way to reach consensus in a completely decentralized manner

The goal of this report is to encourage discussions about decentral-ization and security of the Bitcoin system, as well as about reasonableness of theBitcoin network fees.

Modeling and Verification of the Bitcoin Protocol

The Bitcoin protocol is examined and its formalization as an UPPAAL model is provided to show how double spending can be done if the parties in the Bitcoin protocol behave maliciously, and with what probability double spending occurs.

Hypersyn: A Peer-to-Peer System for Mutual Credit

The Hypersyn protocol is a new type of permissionless and peer-to-peer payment network that is based on the concept of mutual credit and mutual arbitrage that has the potential to increase the autonomy and self-organization that people can have.

Netcoin: A Traceable P2P Electronic Cash System

The two most prominent electronic payment systems of the last forty years, namely Ecash and Bit coin, are examined and Net coin is introduced in detail and is designed to address the shortcomings of these payment systems.

A Survey on Anonymity and Privacy in Bitcoin-Like Digital Cash Systems

This survey presents guidelines for designing an anonymity/privacy improvement and discusses future research directions, and examines the studies in the literature/Web in two major categories: analyses of anonymity and privacy in Bitcoin and extensions and alternatives to Bitcoin, which improve anonymity and Privacy.

An Evaluation of the Security of the Bitcoin Peer-To-Peer Network

  • James TapsellRaja Naeem AkramK. Markantonakis
  • Computer Science
    2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData)
  • 2018
The network protocol and bitcoin core software are analysed, with three bitcoin message exchanges found to be potentially vulnerable to spoofing and use in distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks.

qBitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Quantum Cash System

  • Kazuki Ikeda
  • Computer Science
    Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
  • 2018
A decentralized online quantum cash system, called qBitcoin, is given which has great benefits of quantization in the following sense: the double-spending problem never happens, its security is guaranteed theoretically by virtue of quantum information theory, and the system is based on a quantum chain, instead of blocks.

An Efficient Peer-to-Peer Bitcoin Protocol with Probabilistic Flooding

  • Huy VuH. Tewari
  • Computer Science
    Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering
  • 2019
This paper proposes a novel protocol that changes the current flooding protocol to a probabilistic flooding approach, which allows nodes to maintain certain probabilities of sending information to their neighbours, based on previous message exchanges between the nodes.

Hybrid Decentralized Solution for Bitcoin Zero-Confirmation Transactions

  • Prerna AroteJ. Kuri
  • Computer Science
    2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems & Networks (COMSNETS)
  • 2019
A protocol that offers freedom to do micropayment transaction with anyone as per the need without any prior knowledge about the parties is presented and gives an alternate secured path for zero-confirmation transactions.



Hashcash - A Denial of Service Counter-Measure

This paper captures in one place the various applications, improvements suggested and related subsequent publications, and describes initial experience from experiments using hashcash.

Tangler: a censorship-resistant publishing system based on document entanglements

The design of a censorship-resistant system that employs a unique document storage mechanism designed to eject non-compliant servers and prevent them from doing more harm than good is described.

Time-lock Puzzles and Timed-release Crypto

There are two natural approaches to implementing timed-release crypto: Use ``time-lock puzzles''--computational problems that can not be solved without running a computer continuously for at least a certain amount of time, and use trusted agents who promise not to reveal certain information until a specified date.

Trusted distribution of software over the Internet

  • A. Rubin
  • Computer Science
    Proceedings of the Symposium on Network and Distributed System Security
  • 1995
Bellcore's Trusted Software Integrity (Betsi) System, an implementation of the design, is presented and a detailed design is provided.

Self-certifying file system

While other file systems need key management to map file names to encryption keys, SFS file names effectively contain public keys, making them self-certifying pathnames, making SFS more versatile than any file system with built-in key management.

Secure names for bit-strings

The increasing use of digital documents, and the need to refer to them conveniently and unambiguously, raise an important question: can one “name” a digital document in a way that conveniently

Collision Free Hash Functions and Public Key Signature Schemes

The ability of a hash function to improve security and speed of a signature scheme is discussed: for example, it can combine the RSA-system with a collision free hash function based on factoring to get a scheme which is more efficient and much more secure.

One-Way Group Actions

One-way group actions provides a unified theory for all the known bit commitment schemes that offer unconditional protection for the originator of the commitments, and for many of those that offer her statistical protection.

The Security of Cipher Block Chaining

This work provides its first formal justification, showing the following general lemma: that cipher block chaining a pseudorandom function gives a Pseudo-Cipher Block Chaining function.

The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm

The MD4 message digest algorithm takes an input message of arbitrary length and produces an output 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest", in such a way that it is (hopefully) computationally