Bismuth—Production, properties, and applications

  title={Bismuth—Production, properties, and applications},
  author={Funsho Ojebuoboh},
Bismuth, the most metallic element in group V A of the periodic table, is primarily a by-product of lead refining. It is also a by-product of several ore-dressing operations, especially high-grade scheelite and wolframite ores. It is generally recovered by processing lead electrorefining slimes, Kroll-Betterton dross, and other process residues which contain bismuth. No matter the source, it is refined to virgin metal with chlorine. Bismuth’s unique properties make it attractive for a plethora… 
Thermodynamic properties of alumina-saturated iron-carbon-bismuth alloys
Using direct and indirect equilibration methods, the solubilities of iron in molten bismuth and those of bismuth in molten iron-carbon alloys have been measured over the temperature range 1473-1873
Producing bismuth trioxide and its application in fire assaying
Bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3) is the prevalent commercial oxide of bismuth. A precursor to the preparation of other compounds of bismuth, including the chemical reagents, bismuth trioxide has specialized
Interphase Distribution of Elements during Two-Stage High Temperature Electrochemical Treatment of Lead-Bismuth Alloys
Experimental simulation of the separation of the components of lead-bismuth alloy in a chloride melt is conducted. Using X-ray fluorescence, emission spectral and X-ray powder diffraction analyses,
Preparation of High-Purity Nanometer Bismuth Trioxide from Silver-Zinc Slag
Silver-zinc slag, containing a lot of Bi, Ag, Cu, Zn, Pb and a little Au, has high comprehensive utilization value. This paper describes a preparation method of high-purity nanometer bismuth trioxide
BICUVOX.1-matrix composite electrolyte with yttria-stabilized zirconia as an inert phase: SEM evaluation of the chemical stability under hydrogen atmosphere.
Despite significant surface morphological modifications, the grain-boundary-arranged 3Y-TZP particles in a BICUVOX.1-matrix composite did not result in enhanced chemical stability, and was observed to be composed of microspheres formed primarily of metallic bismuth.
The versatile biomedical applications of bismuth-based nanoparticles and composites: therapeutic, diagnostic, biosensing, and regenerative properties.
This review emphasizes the synthesis and state-of-the-art progress related to the biomedical applications of BiNPs with different structures, sizes, and compositions.
Extraction and separation of zinc, lead, silver, and bismuth from bismuth slag
The present paper deals with the extraction and separation of zinc, lead, silver, and bismuth from a refractory bismuth refining slag via a hydrometallurgical route. The process consists of a
One-step extraction of bismuth from bismuthinite in sodium carbonate–sodium chloride molten salt using ferric oxide as sulfur-fixing agent
In view of serious shortcomings existing in the current bismuthinite metallurgical process, such as high energy consumption, low recovery rate of bismuth and low-concentrate SO2 fume pollution, a
Optimizing bismuth control during copper production
Base metal quality requirements necessitate the application of effective processes for adequate impurity elimination and tight control of operations to cope with impurity level fluctuations. In


Bismuth Bronze from Machu Picchu, Peru
The decorative bronze handle of a tumi excavated at the Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru, appears to be the first known example of the use of bismuth with tin to make bronze.