Bismuth—Production, properties, and applications

@article{Ojebuoboh1992BismuthProductionPA,
  title={Bismuth—Production, properties, and applications},
  author={F. Ojebuoboh},
  journal={JOM},
  year={1992},
  volume={44},
  pages={46-49}
}
Bismuth, the most metallic element in group V A of the periodic table, is primarily a by-product of lead refining. It is also a by-product of several ore-dressing operations, especially high-grade scheelite and wolframite ores. It is generally recovered by processing lead electrorefining slimes, Kroll-Betterton dross, and other process residues which contain bismuth. No matter the source, it is refined to virgin metal with chlorine. Bismuth’s unique properties make it attractive for a plethora… Expand

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References

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Bismuth Bronze from Machu Picchu, Peru