Bisexual men and heterosexual women: how big is the bridge? How can we know?

@article{OLeary2006BisexualMA,
  title={Bisexual men and heterosexual women: how big is the bridge? How can we know?},
  author={Ann O'Leary and Kenneth Terrill Jones},
  journal={Sexually transmitted diseases},
  year={2006},
  volume={33 10},
  pages={
          594-5
        }
}
RECENTLY, MUCH ATTENTION HAS BEEN paid to bisexually active men, who are perceived as constituting a possible “bridge” allowing HIV to cross from men who have sex with men (MSM) to women who have sex with men (WSM). The article in this issue by Hightow and colleagues1 describes results of a study following up an investigation of an HIV outbreak among young black men in North Carolina, a significant number of whom were college students. Health department data were retrospectively reviewed to… 
Behaviorally Bisexual Men and their Risk Behaviors with Men and Women
TLDR
Compared with MSM, MSMW were less likely to be HIV-positive or to engage in unprotected receptive anal intercourse; however, rates of unprotected anal intercourse were similar and MSW were more likely than MSW to be infected with HIV and engage in anal intercourse with their female partners.
HIV prevention and men who have sex with women and men in México: Findings from a qualitative study with HIV‐positive men
TLDR
This paper explores the sexual histories and HIV‐risk perception of HIV‐positive Mexican men who indicated that they have sex with women in a screening interview and then in the context of an in‐depth interview also reported having had sex with men.
Are bisexually active men a ‘bridge’ for HIV transmission to the ‘general population’ in Germany? Data from the European Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men Internet Survey (EMIS)
TLDR
Bisexually active groups reported relatively few risk contacts, strengthening the argument that there is little support for the existence of a substantial ‘bisexual bridge’ in Germany.
Correlates of Risk Patterns and Race/Ethnicity among HIV-Positive Men who have Sex with Men
TLDR
African American MSM who are HIV-positive were less likely than European American men to identify as gay, more likely to report sex with women, and less comfortable discussing their MSM behavior with close friends and acquaintances.
Stability of Bisexual Behavior and Extent of Viral Bridging Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women
TLDR
Key data is provided showing that male bisexual behavior may be stable over long time periods and that behaviorally bisexual men’s risk to female sexual partners may be lower than expected.
HIV AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN AND WOMEN (MSMW): PREVALENCE ESTIMATES, ACQUISITION AND TRANSMISSION RISKS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERVENTIONS
TLDR
Findings show that men who have sex with men and women are subject to profound HIV-related health disparities that deserve theoretical attention and public health intervention design and delivery attuned to their specific needs.
Sexual Behaviors of Non-gay Identified Non-disclosing Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women
TLDR
The findings suggest that non-gay identified non-disclosing MSMW are at risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and STDs, and may serve as a potential bridge, suggesting the need for further research and intervention targeting this unique population.
HIV Infection and Sexual Risk among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
TLDR
Data collection, research, and HIV prevention and care delivery specifically tailored to men who have sex with men and women are necessary to better quantify and ameliorate this population’s HIV burden.
Behaviourally bisexual men as a bridge population for HIV and sexually transmitted infections? Evidence from a national probability survey
TLDR
BBM are thus mid-way between MEFP and MEMP in their sexual risk behaviour, but are similar to MEMp in reporting STI diagnosis/es, which has implications for health promotion and partner notification.
Homonegativity, sexual violence and condom use with women in men who have sex with men and women in West Africa (CohMSM).
TLDR
Given the high HIV prevalence in West African MSM, widespread condom-less sex with women in MSMW, and the aggravating effect of social and internalized homonegativity, more research in the MSMW subpopulation is needed to assess the risk of HIV bridging to women and to design support activities.
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TLDR
The data suggest that bisexual activity is relatively common among black and Hispanic HIV-infected MSM, few identify as heterosexual, and their female partners may not know of their bisexual activity.
Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: A Unique Risk Group for HIV Transmission on North Carolina College Campuses
TLDR
The prevalence of MSM/W among newly diagnosed HIV-infected men in North Carolina was determined, and social and behavioral characteristics of this group with MSM and MSW were compared, and the sexual networks associated with HIV- infected college students among these groups were examined.
Secret encounters: black men, bisexuality, and AIDS in Alabama.
TLDR
It was found that covert and unprotected sex among bisexually active black men was commonplace for reasons that included prostitution, habituation to same-sex relations during incarceration, and the desire to maintain a facade of heterosexuality in homophobic communities.
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) who are on the “down low” (DL) have been the subject of considerable media attention, but few data on this population exist. This exploratory study (N=455) compared
Bisexually active men: Social characteristics and sexual behavior
We describe social characteristics and sexual behavior of young, Black or White bisexually active men (N = 536, 52% Black, M age = 25). Bisexual activity appeared to be relatively stable over time:
Male Bisexuality and HIV Risk
Summary The HIV epidemic has led to extensive research on sexual behaviors, and our knowledge of the range of sexual behaviors in which people engage has grown considerably. In this review, we
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TLDR
This paper reviews recent literature on male bisexuality and HIV risk and suggests new directions for intervention and research in the United States and suggests a heuristic model to encourage additional research examining multiple dimensions of bisexual behavior and HIVrisk.
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Prevalence data on the social distribution and AIDS‐related risk behavior of men who have sex with men are presented from two national probability surveys [General Social Survey (GSS) and National
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Examination of sociocultural and behavioral factors including sexual health, sexual identity, and sexual risk among HIV-seropositive African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) who also have a history of sexual abuse found seven domains focusing on consensual and nonconsensual sexual practices, cultural and gender-bound beliefs, and social expectations were identified.
Experiencing release: Sex environments and escapism for HIV‐positive men who have sex with men
TLDR
Using the cognitive escape model as a theoretical foundation, this analysis focuses on the emotional vulnerability that some of the men who visit sex venues may be avoiding and how their experiences at these venues might act as releasing mechanisms to alleviate dissonant thoughts and feelings.
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