Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence

@article{Belmont1973BirthOF,
  title={Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence},
  author={Lillian Belmont and Francis A. Marolla},
  journal={Science},
  year={1973},
  volume={182},
  pages={1096 - 1101}
}
The relation of birth order and family size to intellectual performance, as measured by the Raven Progressive Matrices, was examined among nearly all of 400,000 19-year-old males born in the Netherlands in 1944 through 1947. It was found that birth order and family size had independent effects on intellectual performance. Effects of family size were not present in all social classes, but effects of birth order were consistent across social class. 

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A study of 400000 19-year-old Dutch men discovered that when curvilinear interaction and linear relationships are analyzed both family size and birth order have significant differential relationships with regard to intelligence in different social class groups.

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It is shown that intelligence quotient (IQ) score levels among nearly 250,000 military conscripts were dependent on social rank in the family and not on birth order as such, providing support for a family interaction explanation.

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For Israeli eighth-grade students of Asian-African origin, achievement decreases as a function of birth order in small families and increases as a function of birth order in large families. This
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