Birdshot chorioretinopathy: current knowledge and new concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.

Abstract

Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BCR) is a rare form of chronic, bilateral, posterior uveitis with a distinctive clinical phenotype, and a strong association with HLA-A29. It predominantly affects people in middle age. Given its rarity, patients often encounter delays in diagnosis leading to delays in adequate treatment, and thus risking significant visual loss. Recent advances have helped increase our understanding of the underlying autoimmune mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis, and new diagnostic approaches such as multimodality imaging have improved our ability to both diagnose and monitor disease activity. Whilst traditional immunosuppressants may be effective in BCR, increased understanding of immune pathways is enabling development of newer treatment modalities, offering the potential for targeted modulation of immune mediators. In this review, we will discuss current understanding of BCR and explore recent developments in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of this disease. Synonyms for BCR: Birdshot chorioretinopathy, Birdshot retinochoroiditis, Birdshot retino-choroidopathy, Vitiliginous choroiditis. Orphanet number: ORPHA179 OMIM: 605808.

DOI: 10.1186/s13023-016-0429-8

Cite this paper

@article{Minos2016BirdshotCC, title={Birdshot chorioretinopathy: current knowledge and new concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.}, author={Evangelos Minos and Robert J Barry and Sue Southworth and Annie Folkard and P. I. Murray and Jay S. Duker and Pearse A Keane and Alastair K Denniston}, journal={Orphanet journal of rare diseases}, year={2016}, volume={11 1}, pages={61} }