Birds that Eat Nonnative Buckthorn Fruit (Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus, Rhamnaceae) in Eastern North America

  title={Birds that Eat Nonnative Buckthorn Fruit (Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus, Rhamnaceae) in Eastern North America},
  author={Julie A. Craves},
ABSTRACT: The buckthorns Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus are nonnative invasive species in North America whose seeds are primarily dispersed by birds. This paper presents the first major compilation of the bird species that eat R. cathartica and F. alnus in eastern North America, where these buckthorns are most invasive and have few common congeners. Using fecal samples, observations, and an extensive literature search, I document 46 bird species that consume R. cathartica and F. alnus… Expand
Weed Survey of Nova Scotia Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium Angustifolium Ait.) Fields
Weed surveys provide the basis for weed management research in lowbush blueberry, but have not been conducted in Nova Scotia since 2001. Documented declines in herbicide efficacy, loss and/or acqui...
Modelling the spread of European buckthorn in the Region of Waterloo
This approach uses a hybrid model, combining habitat suitability and the presence of the invasive in neighbouring cells to predict the probability of a cell being invaded over time, and indicates that this approach can be used to create a spatiotemporally explicit model with limited sampling effort. Expand
Local management in a regional context: Simulations with process-based species distribution models
Ecological models often strive to inform conservation and management decisions. Occurrence-based distribution models may aid regional management strategies, though many management decisions requireExpand


Ecology and ecosystem impacts of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica): a review
Physiological studies have uncovered traits including shade tolerance, rapid growth, high photosynthetic rates, a wide tolerance of moisture and drought, and an unusual phenology that may give R. cathartica an advantage in the environments it invades. Expand
The biology of Canadian weeds. 139. Rhamnus cathartica L.
European buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica L., is an introduced shrub or small tree of forests, thickets, open pastures, hedgerows, roadsides, and riparian habitats in Canada, and is particularly abundant in southern Ontario. Expand
Prunus mahaleb and Birds: The High‐Efficiency Seed Dispersal System of a Temperate Fruiting Tree
The results conflict with theoretical expectations and suggest that both the nature of the correlation between bird— and plant—related coevolutionary gradients and their amplitudes, as well as thenature of bird—plant coev evolutionary interactions, may differ between tropical and temperate habitats. Expand
Rhamnus cathartica: Notes on Its Early History in North America
Abstract Rhamnus cathartica (Common Buckthorn) is a well-established invasive species in North America. We searched early records of the species to help refine this species' history in NorthExpand
Processes regulating the invasion of European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) in three habitats of the northeastern United States
A combination of low dispersal by frugivores, low seed survivalDue to predation, and low seedling survival due to dim light conditions apparently prevents R. cathartica from invasion of intact maple forests of the authors' area. Expand
Does frugivory by European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) facilitate germination in invasive plants?1
Investigating the role of European starlings in facilitating the germination of three invasive, fleshy-fruited plants with which they co-occur shows ingestion by starlings improves germination for both E. umbellata and C. orbiculatus seeds, and that starlings retain seeds long enough for seed dispersal to occur. Expand
Foraging ecology of avian frugivores and some consequences for seed dispersal in an Illinois woodlot
A 3-year study of interactions between frugivorous birds and fleshyfruited plants with bird-dispersed seeds documented the diffuseness of the mutualism between the taxa, and the most efficacious dispersal agents were not necessarily the most common dispersers of any of the plants. Expand
Avian Frugivory and Seed Dispersal in Eastern North America
There was a time when avian ecology was overwhelmingly centered in the temperate zone, to the sorry neglect of the ecology of birds in the tropics. But in the matter of plant-animal (particularlyExpand
Influence of Seed Processing by Frugivorous Birds on Germination Success of Three North American Shrubs
Removal of fruit pulp from seeds by frugivores was critical for germination, especially for seeds within the lipid-rich fruits of Lindera and Viburnum, which suggests that for some fruiting plants, frugiva provide an essential service by freeing seeds from fruit pulp, in addition to their role in seed dispersal. Expand
Studies in the Ecology of Wicken Fen: III. The Establishment and Development of Fen Scrub (Carr)
III. ESTABLISHMENT OF RHAMNUS FRANGULA AND R. CATHARTICUS 90 (a) Fruiting and age of bushes ..90 (b) Germination ..90 (c) Soil acidity ..90 (d) Dispersal by birds ..91 (e) Dispersal by mice ..93 (f)Expand