Birds are Dinosaurs: Simple Answer to a Complex Problem

  title={Birds are Dinosaurs: Simple Answer to a Complex Problem},
  author={Alan Feduccia},
  • A. Feduccia
  • Published 1 October 2002
  • Environmental Science, Geography
Richard Prum's (2002) rancorous, unreviewed essay on the theropod origin of birds is a one-sided view of a difficult problem, full of anatomical misconceptions that are highly misleading, and advocates that (p. 13), "it is time to abandon debate on the theropod origin of birds." His article is essentially a restatement and defense of a current dogma of paleontology-that birds are living dinosaurs, directly descended from, or having shared common ancestry with, one of the most highly derived and… 
Do feathered dinosaurs exist? Testing the hypothesis on neontological and paleontological evidence
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A short history of research on Archaeopteryx and its relationship with dinosaurs
Abstract Archaeopteryx, first discovered in 1861 from the Solnhofen lithographic limestone of Bavaria, is the oldest feathered animal in the fossil record. Since its discovery it has been the focus
  • R. Prum
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 2003
It is concluded that one of the most important frontiers in ornithological research in this century will be the establishment of a thorough scientific understanding of the evolution of avian biology in light of the theropod origin of birds.
The origin and early evolution of birds: discoveries, disputes, and perspectives from fossil evidence
  • Zhonghe Zhou
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2004
Significant size and morphological differences and variation in flight capabilities, ranging from gliding to powerful flight among early birds, highlight the diversification of birds in the Early Cretaceous.
A pre-Archaeopteryx troodontid theropod from China with long feathers on the metatarsus
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Analysis of the five presently known skeletal specimens of Archaeopteryx confirm the conclusions (long rejected by most subsequent workers) of Heilmann (1926), Lowe (1935, 1944, 1944) and Holmgren (1955), namely, that the skeletal anatomy of Archaeipteryx is extraordinarily similar to that of contemporaneous and succeeding coelurosaurian dinosaurs.
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This is the first mature non-avian dinosaur to be found that is smaller than Archaeopteryx, and it eliminates the size disparity between the earliest birds and their closest non-Avian theropod relatives.
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Branched integumental structures in Sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers
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