Bird maneuvering flight: blurred bodies, clear heads.

  title={Bird maneuvering flight: blurred bodies, clear heads.},
  author={Douglas R. Warrick and Matthew W. Bundle and Kenneth P Dial},
  journal={Integrative and comparative biology},
  volume={42 1},
While useful in describing the efficiency of maneuvering flight, steady-state (i.e., fixed wing) models of maneuvering performance cannot provide insight to the efficacy of maneuvering, particularly during low-speed flapping flight. Contrasted with airplane-analogous gliding/high speed maneuvering, the aerodynamic and biomechanical mechanisms employed by birds at low flight speeds are violent, with rapidly alternating forces routinely being developed. The saltatory nature of this type of flight… CONTINUE READING
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