Bipolar II and the bipolar spectrum

  title={Bipolar II and the bipolar spectrum},
  author={Peter Skeppar and Rolf Adolfsson},
  journal={Nordic Journal of Psychiatry},
  pages={26 - 7}
In studies made in the last decade, patients consulting doctors because of depression and anxiety have very often turned out to suffer from bipolar type II and similar conditions with alternating depression and hypomania/mania (the bipolar spectrum disorders - BP). Specifically, about every second patient seeking consultation because of depression has been shown to suffer from BP, mainly bipolar type II. BP is often concealed by other psychiatric conditions, e.g. recurrent depression, psychosis… 

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Acknowledging the impact of mixed features in the course of bipolar depression, essentially by the careful reading of classical Kraepelinian contributions, could enhance clinical management and allow a more judicious use of antidepressants.

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Options for altering DSM-IV criteria to allow some of the above patient presentations to be recognized as bipolar are considered and an additional BP Not Otherwise Specified (BP NOS) example is described which creates a subthreshold hypomanic analogue to cyclothymia, consistent with existing BP NOS criteria.

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Treatment planning for pregnant women with bipolar disorder should consider not only the relative risks of fetal exposure to mood stabilizers but also the high risk of recurrence and morbidity associated with stopping maintenance mood stabilizer treatment.

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Prevalence of bipolar II disorder in atypical depression

  • F. Benazzi
  • Psychology
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
  • 1999
The prevalence of bipolar II disorder among atypical depressed outpatients was higher than previously reported and the age at baseline and onset were significantly lower in bipolar II versus unipolar patients.

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Current evidence suggests that although antidepressants are clearly effective in the acute treatment of type I and type II bipolar depression, they are also associated with a variety of adverse outcomes.

The Prevalence of Migraine in Patients with Bipolar and Unipolar Affective Disorders

  • O. Fasmer
  • Psychology
    Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache
  • 2001
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Personality disorders in bipolar and depressive disorders.