Biotransformation and Disposition of Ketamine

@article{Chang1974BiotransformationAD,
  title={Biotransformation and Disposition of Ketamine},
  author={T. Chang and Anthony J. Glazko},
  journal={International Anesthesiology Clinics},
  year={1974},
  volume={12},
  pages={157–178}
}
The binding of ketamine to plasma proteins: Emphasis on human plasma
TLDR
It was shown that binding of K to plasma and albumin is dependent on pH; binding is decreased at pH lower than 7.4 and increased at higher pH; the partition coefficient between an organic phase and buffer was found to be sensitive to small pH changes.
Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Anaesthetics: Implications for Clinical Use
SummaryIntravenous anaesthetics comprise a variety of drugs that differ in chemical structure but share a suitable combination of physical properties that confer ready penetration of the blood-brain
Sex-dependent metabolism of ketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine in mice and humans
TLDR
Sex is an important biological variable that influences the metabolism of ketamine and the HNKs, which may contribute to sex differences in therapeutic antidepressant efficacy or side effects.
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Task Force Recommendations for the Use of Racemic Ketamine in Adults with Major Depressive Disorder.
TLDR
Because of limited evidence for efficacy and risk for misuse and diversion, the use of oral and other formulations of racemic ketamine should be limited to specialists with ketamine-prescribing expertise and affiliations with tertiary or specialized centers.
Hydroxynorketamines: Pharmacology and Potential Therapeutic Applications
TLDR
Preclinical studies indicate that hydroxynorketamines (HNKs) exert antidepressant-relevant behavioral actions and may also have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and other physiological effects that are relevant for the treatment of a variety of human diseases.
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in the Pediatric Population
  • B. Anderson
  • Medicine, Biology
    Pediatric Sedation Outside of the Operating Room
  • 2021
TLDR
Known pharmacodynamic factors that may influence response in early life remain poorly defined and knowledge of paediatric PK-PD and of changes seen during growth and maturation is essential for dosing sedatives in children.
Relative Contributions of Intraoperative Low Dose Ketamine, Lidocaine and Ketamine-Lidocaine Combination in Addition to Intrathecal Morphine for Postoperative Analgesia in Open Liver Resection: A Prospective, Randomized, Four-Arm, Triple Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
TLDR
Low dose lidocaine and its combination with ketamine did not add any analgesic/morphine sparing benefit in the presence of single dose intrathecal morphine in patients with major liver resection.
Ketamine metabolites, clinical response, and gamma power in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial for treatment-resistant major depression
TLDR
Results replicate those of a recently published study documenting a relationship between higher ( 2S,6S;2R,6R )-HNK concentrations and weaker antidepressant response in humans and provide further rationale for studying gamma power changes as potential biomarkers of antidepressant response.
Ketamine pharmacokinetics in recipients and donors of ABO blood typecompatible and -incompatible living kidney transplantation
TLDR
It is concluded that ketamine can be safely applied as an adjuvant with intravenous anesthesia during ABO blood type-compatible and -incompatible living kidney transplantation.
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