Abandoned Foreigners: is the stage set for exotic pet reptiles to invade Central Europe?
11 Aim The biotic resistance hypothesis argues that complex plant and animal communities are 12 more resistant to invasion than simpler communities. Conversely, the biotic acceptance 13 hypothesis states that non-native and native species richness are positively related. Most tests 14 of these hypotheses at continental scales, typically conducted on plants, have found support 15 for biotic acceptance. We tested these hypotheses on both amphibians and reptiles across 16 Europe and North America. 17 Location Continental countries in Europe and states/provinces in North America. 18 Methods We used multiple linear regression models to determine which factors predicted 19 successful establishment of amphibians and reptiles in Europe and North America, and 20 additional models to determine which factors predicted native species richness. 21 Results Successful establishment of amphibians and reptiles in Europe and reptiles in North 22 America was positively related to native species richness. We found higher numbers of 23 successful amphibian species in Europe than in North America. Potential evapotranspiration 24 (PET) was positively related to non-native species richness for amphibians and reptiles in 25