Biosynthesis of Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate

  title={Biosynthesis of Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate},
  author={Jeremiah E. Silbert and Geetha Sugumaran},
  journal={IUBMB Life},
Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate are synthesized as galactosaminoglycan polymers containing N ‐acetylgalactosmine alternating with glucuronic acid. The sugar residues are sulfated to varying degrees and positions depending upon the tissue sources and varying conditions of formation. Epimerization of any of the glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid at the polymer level constitutes the formation of dermatan sulfate. Chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans are covalently attached by a… 
Structure of chondroitin sulfate.
Chondroitin Sulfate Synthase-2
Results indicate that this enzyme could synthesize chondroitin sulfate chains as a chondDetroit in sulfate synthase that has both glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities.
Chondroitin Sulfate Synthase-3
A novel human gene is reported that possesses a sequence homologous with the human chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1) gene, formerly known as chondDetroitin synthase, and it may make a contribution to CS biosynthesis that differs from that of CSS1.
Biosynthesis of Natural and Hyperelongated Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans: New Insights into an Elusive Process
Inhibition of these latter pathways may be a therapeutic target to prevent the elongation which is associated with increased binding of atherogenic lipids and the disease process of atherosclerosis.
Irreversible Glucuronyl C5-epimerization in the Biosynthesis of Heparan Sulfate*
The results indicate that glucuronic acid C5-epimerization is effectively irreversible in vivo and argue for a stringent organization of the biosynthetic machinery.
Iduronic Acid in Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate
This short review presents the biosynthesis and functions of iduronic acid-containing structures, also as revealed by the analysis of the DS-epi1- and 2-deficient mouse models.
Biosynthesis of Dermatan Sulfate
The gene encoding chondroitin-glucuronate C5-epimerase, a protein with unknown function highly expressed in cancer cells and tissues, was identified by 18 peptides covering 26% of the sequence and is proposed to rename SART2, which may be involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis.
The amino acid tryptophan prevents the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate.
Results are consistent with the model in which the core protein, via the amino acid tryptophan, is responsible for routing to subcellular compartments with or without sufficient access to chondroitin-glucuronate 5-epimerase.