Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

  title={Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber},
  author={Yi Shang and Yongshuo Ma and Yuan Zhou and Huimin Zhang and Lixin Duan and Huiming Chen and Jianguo Zeng and Qian Zhou and Shenhao Wang and Wenjia Gu and Min Liu and Jinwei Ren and Xingfang Gu and Shengping Zhang and Ye Wang and Ken Yasukawa and Harro J. Bouwmeester and Xiaoquan Qi and Zhonghua Zhang and William J Lucas and Sanwen Huang},
  pages={1084 - 1088}
Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in… 
Convergence and divergence of bitterness biosynthesis and regulation in Cucurbitaceae
Comparison of the genomes of cucumber, melon and watermelon uncovered conserved syntenic loci encoding metabolic genes for distinct cucurbitacins and discovered a syntenic gene cluster of transcription factors that regulates the tissue-specific biosynthesis of cucurbits and may confer the loss of bitterness phenotypes associated with convergent domestication of wild cucurbits.
Metabolome and Transcriptome Analyses of Cucurbitacin Biosynthesis in Luffa (Luffa acutangula)
This study analyzed bitter and non-bitter genotypes of Luffa to reveal the underlying mechanism of cucurbitacin biosynthesis by integrating metabolome and transcriptome analyses, and provides important insights into major genes and metabolites of the cucur Bitacins biosynthetic pathway.
Change in Bitterness, Accumulation of Cucurbitacin B and Expression Patterns of CuB Biosynthesis-related Genes in Melon During Fruit Development
Bitterness, caused by cucurbitacins, is present in some melon fruit. Although bitter compound biosynthesis and regulation in Cucurbitaceae plants have been reported, the dynamic changes in bitterness
Origin and domestication of Cucurbitaceae crops:insights from phylogenies, genomics and archaeology.
Insights on cucurbit domestication from new phylogenies, archaeology, and genomic studies are reviewed, suggesting that an annual life cycle may have contributed to domestication.
The role of H2S in low temperature-induced cucurbitacin C increases in cucumber
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Recent advances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
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An updated review of Cucurbitacins and their biological and pharmacological activities
Natural and semisynthetic Cus are proposed as a promising source for the development of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of various cancers.
Profiling cucurbitacins from diverse watermelons (Citrullus spp.)
The cucurbitacin composition in various watermelon germplasms and in different plant tissue is revealed and the correlation between bitter taste and cucurBitacin E glycoside content is confirmed.
The GORKY glycoalkaloid transporter is indispensable for preventing tomato bitterness.
Fine mapping with information from 150 resequenced genomes and genotyping a 650-tomato core collection is combined to identify nine bitter-tasting accessions including the 'high tomatine' Peruvian landraces reported in the literature.


Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles.
The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles.
Cucurbitacin C—Bitter Principle in Cucumber Plants
The bitter sensation felt when biting the plant parts could be interpreted as corresponding to the content of cucurbitacin C, a strongly bitter component of cucumber plants.
Role of Cucurbitacin C in Resistance to Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae) in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
A quantitative relationship between cucurbitacin C content and spider mite resistance could be established in the dihaploid progeny derived from the F1 generation of a cross between a bitter,Spider mite-resistant cucumber line and a bitter-free, spider-mite-susceptible line.
The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.
This study establishes that five of the cucumber's seven chromosomes arose from fusions of ten ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo, and identifies 686 gene clusters related to phloem function.
Biological activities and potential molecular targets of cucurbitacins: a focus on cancer
The present study summarizes the achievements of the 50 years of research on cucurbitacins and systematically analyze their bioactivities with an emphasis on their anticancer effects.
A genomic variation map provides insights into the genetic basis of cucumber domestication and diversity
The genomic history of cucumber evolution uncovered here provides the basis for future genomics-enabled breeding and finds a natural genetic variant in a β-carotene hydroxylase gene that could be used to breed cucumbers with enhanced nutritional value.
Cucurbitacins and cucurbitane glycosides: structures and biological activities.
The natural cucurbitacins constitute a group of triterpenoid substances which are well-known for their bitterness and toxicity and are divided into twelve categories.
Distribution and extent of diversity in Cucumis species in the Aravalli ranges of India
The distribution, collection, extent of variability, associated indigenous traditional knowledge, conservation status of these Cucumis species and prospects of their utilization in crop improvement are presented.
Cucumber Beetle Resistance and Mite Susceptibility Controlled by the Bitter Gene in Cucumis sativus L
Antibiotic and nonpreference mechanisms are related in cucumber through the action of the bi gene and the absence of cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins attract cucumber beetles and cause feeding whereas