Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, V: Clinical characteristics and behavioral correlates.

@article{Kales1984BiopsychobehavioralCO,
  title={Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, V: Clinical characteristics and behavioral correlates.},
  author={Joyce D. Kales and Anthony Kales and Edward O. Bixler and Constantin R. Soldatos and Roger J. Cadieux and G J Kashurba and Antonio Vela‐bueno},
  journal={The American journal of psychiatry},
  year={1984},
  volume={141 11},
  pages={
          1371-6
        }
}
The authors compared two large samples of insomniac patients with a group of control subjects. Sleep difficulty usually began before the age of 40 and generally persisted for many years (average duration, 14 years). Several characteristic behaviors were correlated with the symptom of insomnia. During the day and at bedtime, patients reported difficulty relaxing and frequently described themselves as tense, anxious, overly preoccupied, worried, and depressed. Reports of poor mental and physical… 
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Socioeconomic status and insomnia.
TLDR
Results indicated that individuals of lower individual and household education were significantly more likely to experience insomnia even after researchers accounted for ethnicity, gender, and age.
Reported Chronic Insomnia Is Independent of Poor Sleep as Measured by Electroencephalography
TLDR
A history of chronic insomnia does not predict poor EEGSleep, and both chronic insomnia and poor EEG sleep are associated independently with dysphoria, hyperarousal, diminished waking function, and negative subjective sleep quality.
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Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, III: Polygraphic findings of sleep difficulty and their relationship to psychopathology.
TLDR
The effects of age and sex on sleep-wakefulness patterns and the relationship between these patterns and psychopathology are described and the severity of sleep difficulty and the degree of psychopathology were positively related in insomniacs.
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TLDR
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