Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress

  title={Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress},
  author={Matthew N. Cramer and Ollie Jay},
  journal={Autonomic Neuroscience},
Physiological Response to Heat Stress
The human body is equipped with physiological systems that aid in heat dissipation during heat stress. These systems work to limit heat storage during heat stress to maintain a relatively constant
Sweating as a heat loss thermoeffector.
Thermoeffector Responses at a Fixed Rate of Heat Production in Heart Failure Patients
Findings demonstrate that HF patients exhibit a blunted skin blood flow response, but no differences in sweating, which can be attributed to a less uniform internal distribution of heat between the body core and periphery.
Aging and Thermoregulatory Control: The Clinical Implications of Exercising under Heat Stress in Older Individuals
An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for impaired thermoregulation in this population is of particular importance, given the current and projected increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves, as well as the promotion of regular exercise as a means of improving health-related quality of life and morbidity and mortality.
Orderly recruitment of thermoeffectors in resting humans.
The hypothesis that changes in skin blood flow, behavior, and sweating or metabolic rate are initiated with increasing changes in mean skin temperature in resting humans is tested and indicates that autonomic and behavioral thermoeffectors are recruited in coordination with one another and likely in an orderly manner relative to the comparative physiological cost.
Are All Heat Loads Created Equal?
  • R. MeadeG. Kenny
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 2017
Exercise at a fixed Ereq resulted in similar evaporative heat loss and Tb, however, the Tes, Tsk, HR, and PSI responses varied depending on the relative contribution of metabolic and environmental heat load.


Thermometry, calorimetry, and mean body temperature during heat stress.
This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise and evaluates the physiological responses associated with heat stress.
Heat Flow and Distribution during Induction of General Anesthesia
The arms and legs are both important components of the peripheral thermal compartment, but distal segments contribute most, and core hypothermia during the first hour after induction resulted largely from redistribution of body heat, and redistribution remained the major cause even after 3 h of anesthesia.
Human cardiovascular responses to passive heat stress.
Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur.
Human morphology and temperature regulation
  • G. Anderson
  • Environmental Science
    International journal of biometeorology
  • 1999
The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress.
Heart rate and body temperature responses to extreme heat and humidity with and without electric fans.
The influence of fan use on the critical humidities at which hot environments can no longer be physiologically tolerated without rapid increases in HR and core temperature is examined.
Effective temperature scale useful for hypo- and hyperbaric environments.
  • Y. NishiA. Gagge
  • Environmental Science
    Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • 1977
Comprehensive data, developed for a 2-node model of human temperature regulation and of the associated partitional calorimetry, demonstrates the expected interaction between SET and the basic environmental and clothing factors over the barometric range 0.33 to 30 ATA.
Relevance of individual characteristics for human heat stress response is dependent on exercise intensity and climate type
It is demonstrated that effects of individual characteristics on human responses to heat stress cannot be interpreted without taking into consideration both the heat transfer properties of the environment and the metabolic heat production resulting from the exercise type and intensity chosen.
The evaporative requirement for heat balance determines whole‐body sweat rate during exercise under conditions permitting full evaporation
To perform an unbiased comparison of WBSRs (but not necessarily core temperature) between different individuals/groups under conditions allowing full evaporation, future studies should consider using a fixed Ereq irrespective of the % incurred.
Humid heat acclimation does not elicit a preferential sweat redistribution toward the limbs.
The data did not support the hypothesis of a generalized and preferential trunk-to-limb sweat redistribution after heat acclimation, and reduced sweat thresholds appeared to be primarily related to a lower resting Tb, and more dependent on Tb change.
Influence of air velocity and heat acclimation on human skin wettedness and sweating efficiency.
  • V. CandasJ. LibertJ. Vogt
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology
  • 1979
Beneficial increases in evaporation were achievable by increasing skin wettedness only when there was a consistent drippage, which differed from one body area to another and from one subject to another.