Biophysical and economic limits to negative CO2 emissions

@article{Smith2016BiophysicalAE,
  title={Biophysical and economic limits to negative CO2 emissions},
  author={Pete Smith and Steven J. Davis and Felix Creutzig and Sabine Fuss and Jan C. Minx and Jan C. Minx and Beno{\^i}t Gabrielle and Etsushi Kato and Robert B. Jackson and Annette L. Cowie and Elmar Kriegler and Detlef van Vuuren and Detlef P. van Vuuren and Joeri Rogelj and Joeri Rogelj and Philippe Ciais and J. Milne and Josep G. Canadell and David L. McCollum and Glen P. Peters and Robbie M. Andrew and Volker Krey and Gyami Shrestha and Pierre Friedlingstein and Thomas Gasser and Arnulf Grubler and Wolfgang K. Heidug and Matthias Jonas and Chris D. Jones and Florian Kraxner and Emma W. Littleton and Jason A. Lowe and Jos{\'e} Roberto Moreira and Nebojsa Nakicenovic and Michael Obersteiner and Anand Patwardhan and Mathis Rogner and Eddy Rubin and Ayyoob Sharifi and Asbj{\o}rn Torvanger and Yoshiki Yamagata and Jae Edmonds and Cho Yongsung},
  journal={Nature Climate Change},
  year={2016},
  volume={6},
  pages={42-50}
}
To have a >50% chance of limiting warming below 2 °C, most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models (IAMs) require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs). These are technologies that result in the net removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. We quantify potential global impacts of the different NETs on various factors (such as land, greenhouse gas emissions, water, albedo, nutrients and energy) to determine the biophysical limits to, and economic… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Biomass-based negative emissions difficult to reconcile with planetary boundaries
Under the Paris Agreement, 195 nations have committed to holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to strive to limit the increase to
The potential for implementation of Negative Emission Technologies in Scotland
Co-producing climate policy and negative emissions: trade-offs for sustainable land-use
Non-technical summary Under the Paris Agreement, nations have committed to preventing dangerous global warming. Scenarios for achieving net-zero emissions in the second half of this century depend on
Negative Emissions: Priorities for Research and Policy Design
The large-scale removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is likely to be important in maintaining temperature rise “well below” 2oC, and vital in achieving the most stringent 1.5oC target.
The Role of Direct Air Capture in Mitigation of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions
In recent years Direct Air Capture (DAC) has established itself as one promising approache to Atmospheric Carbon dioxide Removal (CDR) also referred to as Negative Emissions. However due to the
Food–energy–water implications of negative emissions technologies in a +1.5 °C future
Scenarios for meeting ambitious climate targets rely on large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs), including direct air capture (DAC). However, the tradeoffs between food,
Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies
  • Pete Smith
  • Environmental Science
    Global change biology
  • 2016
TLDR
Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs.
Negative emissions-Part 2 : Costs, potentials and side effects
The most recent IPCC assessment has shown an important role for negative emissions technologies (NETs) in limiting global warming to 2 °C cost-effectively. However, a bottom-up, systematic,
Greenhouse Gas Inventory Model for Biochar Additions to Soil
TLDR
A GHG accounting methodology for biochar application to mineral soils using simple parameterizations and readily accessible activity data is developed, making it a robust method that can be used for many applications including national inventories and voluntary and compliance carbon markets, among others.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 124 REFERENCES
The role of negative CO2 emissions for reaching 2 °C—insights from integrated assessment modelling
Limiting climate change to 2 °C with a high probability requires reducing cumulative emissions to about 1600 GtCO2 over the 2000–2100 period. This requires unprecedented rates of decarbonization even
The feasibility of low CO2 concentration targets and the role of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC 1992) calls for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous
Negative emissions physically needed to keep global warming below 2 °C.
TLDR
It is concluded that development of negative emission technologies should be accelerated, but also that conventional mitigation must remain a substantial part of any climate policy aiming at the 2-°C target.
Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies
  • Pete Smith
  • Environmental Science
    Global change biology
  • 2016
TLDR
Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs.
Can radiative forcing be limited to 2.6 Wm−2 without negative emissions from bioenergy AND CO2 capture and storage?
Combining bioenergy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies (BECCS) has the potential to remove CO2 from the atmosphere while producing useful energy. BECCS has played a
Economic and ecological views on climate change mitigation with bioenergy and negative emissions
Climate stabilization scenarios emphasize the importance of land‐based mitigation to achieve ambitious mitigation goals. The stabilization scenarios informing the recent IPCC's Fifth Assessment
Global potential of biospheric carbon management for climate mitigation.
TLDR
If executed accordingly, through avoided emissions and carbon sequestration, biological carbon and bioenergy mitigation could save up to 38 billion tonnes of carbon and 3-8% of estimated energy consumption, respectively, by 2050.
Managing Forests for Climate Change Mitigation
TLDR
With political will and the involvement of tropical regions, forests can contribute to climate change protection through carbon sequestration as well as offering economic, environmental, and sociocultural benefits.
Probabilistic cost estimates for climate change mitigation
TLDR
It is found that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost–risk distribution, followed by geophysical uncertainties, social factors influencing future energy demand and technological uncertainties surrounding the availability of greenhouse gas mitigation options.
Ecological limits to terrestrial biological carbon dioxide removal
Terrestrial biological atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (BCDR) through bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECS), afforestation/reforestation, and forest and soil management is a family of
...
1
2
3
4
5
...