There are different methods to estimate and predict effects of chemical elements and corresponding speciation forms in biochemistry and toxicology, including statements on essentiality and antagonisms. Two approaches are given here: a) “identity cards“ describing biologically fundamental aspects of element chemistry and b) qualitative discussions which assume the existence of (indirect ways into) chemical autocatalysis to be essential for maintaining life and permitting reproduction. The latter method, developed by the present authors, draws upon Stoichiometric Network Analysis (a safe procedure for complexity reduction in feedback networks) and provides estimates of concentration regimes for different elements suitable for survival and reproduction. The biochemical hierarchy level considered here is that of (metallo-)proteins. Thermodynamic toxicity aspects are given in correlations with DMSO solvent affinities and thiocyanate bonding modes. Effects of antagonists and of ion substitution within metalloenzyms or of metabolic simplification can be dealt with, likewise increased sensitivities within symbiotic relationships and within carcinomas are explained which are relevant for environmental monitoring and tumor therapy, respectively.