Biomedical research. Of mice and women: the bias in animal models.

  title={Biomedical research. Of mice and women: the bias in animal models.},
  author={Chelsea Wald and Corinna Wu},
  volume={327 5973},
In 1993, the U.S. National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act mandated that women and minorities be included in clinical research, because treatments had been shown to have different effects in different populations. A 2001 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report published by the National Academy Press pointed to evidence that the same was true for research using animal models: The sex of the animal can lead to qualitatively different results. Yet because male rodents are cheaper and easier to… 

Sex bias in neuroscience and biomedical research

Pervasive Neglect of Sex Differences in Biomedical Research.

Drug pharmacokinetic analysis reveals that, among subjects administered a standard drug dose, women are exposed to higher blood drug concentrations and longer drug elimination times, which contributes to increased adverse drug reactions in women and suggests that women are routinely overmedicated and should be administered lower drug doses than men.

Sex as an important biological variable in biomedical research

Why and how funding organizations such as the European Commission, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the US National Institutes of health have tried to influence researchers to integrate sex/gender not only in clinical research, but also in basic and preclinical research are described.

Sex still matters: has the prevalence of male-only studies of drug effects on rodent behaviour changed during the past decade?

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    Behavioural pharmacology
  • 2019
The male-only situation could be rectified by appropriate funding agencies and journals that publish behavioural pharmacological research insisting that both sexes must be included in research that is not sex specific along with valid scientific justification for single-sex studies, as now typifies some other disciplines.

Reporting Animal Studies: Good Science and a Duty of Care

In their analysis of 271 articles in Medline and EMBASE reporting research on rats, mice, and non-human primates, the authors found that studies often contained no hint of a hypothesis, no randomisation, inappropriate controls, statistical tests without any explanation, no mention of the sex or age of the animal involved, and so on.

The Ethical Implications for Humans in Light of the Poor Predictive Value of Animal Models

Trans-Species Modeling Theory (TSMT) is examined, the empirical evidence surrounding the use of animal models, and the opinions of experts are examined; the ethical implications regarding research constructed to find cures and treatments for humans are discussed.

Putting the Bio in Biobehavioral

  • J. Holden
  • Biology
    Western journal of nursing research
  • 2011
Five key features to think about when choosing a model are as follows: model asymmetry, necessary differences, specificity to the study, model validity, and model improvement.

Twenty years and still counting: including women as participants and studying sex and gender in biomedical research

It has been 20 years since the first requirements to include women as well as men in clinical trials and analyze results by sex were mandated by a U.S. federal law, yet not nearly enough progress has been made, prompting specific instrumental recommendations for how to include the study of sex and gender in research.

The importance of selection and reporting of the sex of experimental animals

  • A. Rowe
  • Biology
    Animal Production Science
  • 2019
An analysis to determine how males and females are used in animal studies involving the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation was undertaken as part of a process to review and further support best practice.