Biomechanics of Flight in Neotropical Butterflies : Morphometrics and Kinematics

@inproceedings{Dudley2005BiomechanicsOF,
  title={Biomechanics of Flight in Neotropical Butterflies : Morphometrics and Kinematics},
  author={Robert Dudley},
  year={2005}
}
Wing and body kinematics of free cruising flight are described for 37 species of Panamanian butterflies ranging over two orders of magnitude in body mass. Butterflies exhibit considerable diversity in body and wing shape, but morphological design is, in general, isometric. Wing loading and mean body diameter show positive allometry. The cruising flight of butterflies is characterized by low wingbeat frequencies (here averaging 11 Hz), stroke amplitudes averaging 103°, and forward speeds in… CONTINUE READING
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