Biomechanics and physiology of gait selection in flying birds.

@article{Tobalske2000BiomechanicsAP,
  title={Biomechanics and physiology of gait selection in flying birds.},
  author={Bret W. Tobalske},
  journal={Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ},
  year={2000},
  volume={73 6},
  pages={736-50}
}
Two wing-beat gaits, distinguished by the presence or absence of lift production during the upstroke, are currently used to describe avian flight. Vortex-visualization studies indicate that lift is produced only during the downstroke in the vortex-ring gait and that lift is produced continuously in the continuous-vortex gait. Tip-reversal and feathered upstrokes represent different forms of vortex-ring gait distinguished by wing kinematics. Useful aerodynamic forces may be produced during tip… CONTINUE READING
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