Biomechanics and Running Economy

@article{Anderson1996BiomechanicsAR,
  title={Biomechanics and Running Economy},
  author={Tim R. Anderson},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={1996},
  volume={22},
  pages={76-89}
}
  • T. Anderson
  • Published 1 August 1996
  • Engineering
  • Sports Medicine
SummaryRunning economy, which has traditionally been measured as the oxygen cost of running at a given velocity, has been accepted as the physiological criterion for ‘efficient’ performance and has been identified as a critical element of overall distance running performance. There is an intuitive link between running mechanics and energy cost of running, but research to date has not established a clear mechanical profile of an economic runner. It appears that through training, individuals are… 
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A strong correlation was found between the moment arm of the Achilles tendon and running economy, and smaller muscle moment arms correlated with lower rates of metabolic energy consumption.
Portal Running biomechanics : shorter heels , better economy
Better running economy (i.e. a lower rate of energy consumption at a given speed) is correlated with superior distance running performance. There is substantial variation in running economy, even
Strategies to Improve Running Economy
TLDR
It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that affect RE and the practicality and extent to which RE can be improved outside the laboratory.
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TLDR
It is evident that RE is a complex, multifactorial concept that reflects the integrated composite of a variety of metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that are unique to the individual.
Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy
TLDR
Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.
Specific muscle–tendon architecture in elite Kenyan distance runners
TLDR
The results suggest that longer MA_AT and lower FLR could be advantageous in elite Kenyan runners, by contributing to effective endurance running performance in a protective and economical way.
The Relationship Between Running Economy and Biomechanical Variables in Distance Runners
In this study, we analyzed the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanical parameters in a group running at the same relative intensity and same absolute velocity. Sixteen homogeneous
The relationship between running economy and biomechanical variables in distance runners.
TLDR
Changes in running technique can influence RE and lead to improved running performance and significant correlations between RE and biomechanical variables are found.
A New Direction to Athletic Performance: Understanding the Acute and Longitudinal Responses to Backward Running
TLDR
Comparisons of the acute responses to FR reveal that BR is characterised by a smaller ratio of braking to propulsive forces, increased step frequency, decreased step length, increased muscle activity and reliance on isometric and concentric muscle actions.
Lower-Body Determinants of Running Economy in Male and Female Distance Runners
TLDR
Although both leg stiffness and moment arm length are highly related to running economy, it seems that no single lower-body measure can completely explain differences in running economy between individuals or genders.
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References

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TLDR
It appears that no single variable or small subset of variables can explain differences in economy between individuals but rather that economy is related to a weighted sum of the influences of many variables.
A BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF ELITE AND GOOD DISTANCE RUNNERS
TLDR
The major objective of the present study is to make a comparison between groups of elite and good distance runners on variables such as stride length and rate, lower limb kinematics, swing phase kinetics, and center of gravity motion.
AEROBIC RESPONSES OF FEMALE DISTANCE RUNNERS TO SUBMAXIMAL AND MAXIMAL EXERCISE *
TLDR
It appears that considerable individual differences may exist in distance running, but whether the factor of running is the factor or the other way around.
Factors Affecting Running Economy
TLDR
The ability of economy, either singly or in combination with V̇O2 max, to account for a substantial portion of performance variation among trained distance runners and untrained subjects of comparable ability and fitness level has been demonstrated in recent cross-sectional studies.
Optimal stride length considerations for male and female recreational runners.
TLDR
The adoption of optimal rate and length of stride in an attempt to tailor these factors to individual anthropometric measures may be crucial in increasing jogging efficiency.
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TLDR
A mechanical model is given for the walking and running processes and appears to be identified as elastic recoil energy from the stretched contracted muscle and amounts to about half the energy spent in running.
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Physiological and mechanical consequences of running with commercially available hand and/or ankle weights were examined. Five males and three females (age 30 to 56 yr) ran for 30 min on a treadmill
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TLDR
It is suggested that when the flight phase is included in the mechanical energy calculations, the measured efficiency for the positive work reaches a high but constant value in running at low-to-moderate speeds.
A physiologist's view of running economy.
  • J. Daniels
  • Education
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 1985
TLDR
It is suggested that running economy be investigated as an entity, so that changes that may take place with time or training can be more accurately related to their cause.
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