Biomechanics (Communication arising): Prey attack by a large theropod dinosaur

  title={Biomechanics (Communication arising): Prey attack by a large theropod dinosaur},
  author={Emily J. Rayfield and David B. Norman and Paul Upchurch},
Our analysis showed that the cranial strength of Allosaurus far exceeded the stresses that could have been generated by its jaw-closing muscles, and we suggested that this disparity might be explained if this dinosaur had adopted a 'slash-and-tear' mode of attack. Frazzetta and Kardong raise three points in criticism of this suggested mode of feeding. 

Mechanical stress as the main factor in skull design of the fossil reptile Proterosuchus (Archosauria)

The aim of this study of the crocodile-like fossil Proterosuchus is to obtain a simplified model, which is, in shape and internal structure, as close as possible to the natural counterpart.

Using finite-element analysis to investigate suture morphology: a case study using large carnivorous dinosaurs.

  • E. Rayfield
  • Environmental Science
    The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology
  • 2005
It was discovered that Allosaurus cranial sutures appear generally capable of accommodating stress and strain patterns generated during biting and it is argued that useful information can be obtained from finite-element models of extinct animals, providing that adequate assumptions are made and appropriate questions asked.

Cranial Kinesis in Dinosaurs: Intracranial Joints, Protractor Muscles, and Their Significance for Cranial Evolution and Function in Diapsids

Almost all dinosaurs lacked the kinematic linkages that would have permitted movement, and synovial basal and otic joints and protractor musculature are diapsid plesiomorphies, and most formulations of nonavian dinosaur kinesis are currently problematic.

Evolution of the vomer and its implications for cranial kinesis in Paraves

It is concluded that cranial kinesis evolved relatively late, likely an innovation of the Neognathae, and is linked to the transformation of the vomer, enabling the evolution of a diversity of kinetic mechanisms and ultimately contributing to the extraordinary evolutionary success of this clade.

Finite Element Analysis and Understanding the Biomechanics and Evolution of Living and Fossil Organisms

Finite element analysis has much potential in addressing questions of form-function relationships, providing appropriate questions are ask, and explicit hypothesis-testing bridges these two standpoints.

Komodo monitor (Varanus komodoensis) feeding behavior and dental function reflected through tooth marks on bone surfaces, and the application to ziphodont paleobiology

Both feeding behavior and tooth marks indicate that ziphodont crowns are ideal for defleshing by being drawn distally through a carcass by Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo monitor.

Structure, Orientation and Finite Element Analysis of the Tail Club of Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis

The analysis suggests that the tail club of Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis probably also had limitations as a defense weapon and was more possibly a sensory organ to improve nerve conduction velocity to enhance the capacity for sensory perception of its surroundings.

Fossils with Little Relief: Using Lasers to Conserve, Image, and Analyze the Ediacara Biota

Fifty years have now passed since the discovery of Charnia masoni and Charniodiscus concentricus in Charnwood Forest, UK. But what is Charnia? And how was it related to the great explosion of animal

Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex

  • E. Rayfield
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2004
Finite–element–generated stress–strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla–jugal suture provides a tensile shock– absorption function that reduces localized tension yet ‘weakens’ the skull overall.



Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur

This work has generated the most geometrically complete and complex FEA model of the skull of any extinct or extant organism and used this to test its mechanical properties and examine, in a quantitative way, long-held hypotheses concerning overall shape and function.

Bite-force estimation for Tyrannosaurus rex from tooth-marked bones

The discovery of skeletal remains with bite marks from Tyrannosaurus rex makes it possible to estimate, through indentation simulations on bovine ilia, the bite forces produced by T. rexduring feeding, and these estimates rival the largest bite forces determined for any taxon to date and suggest thatT.

Taphonomy and Paleoecology of the Dinosaur Beds of the Jurassic Morrison Formation

The Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation has yielded one of the richest dinosaur faunas of the world. Morrison sediments are distributed over more than a million square kilometers in the western United

Rapid braincase evolution between Panderichthys and the earliest tetrapods

The complete braincase of the fish Panderichthys rhombolepis is presented, showing that the braincase retained the intracranial joint, conforming wholly to the generalized pattern of lobe-finned fish, and sharing no obvious derived features with tetrapods.

The Serrated Teeth of Tyrannosaurid Dinosaurs, and Biting Structures in Other Animals

  • W. Abler
  • Environmental Science
  • 1992
The teeth of at least some reptiles are as rich in information as the teeth of any mammals, and the fine neural control necessary to operate them may have formed the basis for the later development of intelligence in mammals.

A functional consideration of cranial kinesis in lizards

Cranial Form and Function in a Large theropod Dinosaur: A Study Using Finite Element Analysis. Thesis

  • 2001