Biomechanics: Halteres used in ancient Olympic long jump

@article{Minetti2002BiomechanicsHU,
  title={Biomechanics: Halteres used in ancient Olympic long jump},
  author={Alberto Enrico Minetti and Luca Paolo Ardig{\`o}},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2002},
  volume={420},
  pages={141-142}
}
Halteres (αλτηρεζ) are hand-held weights that were first used in the standing long jump in the eighteenth ancient Olympiad in 708 bc, and may have been introduced either to make the challenge more difficult or to extend the jumping distance. Here we use computer and experimental simulations to determine the optimal mass of halteres that would be needed to maximally extend a standing long jump, and find that this corresponds closely to the size range of actual archaeological specimens. These… Expand
Simplified Biomechanics for a Possible Explanation of the Ancient Greek Long Jump Using Halteres
In this paper closed form analytical expressions were derived in order to simulate the possible action of "halteres" used in the ancient Greek long jump. For the sake of simplicity, elementary theoryExpand
On The Maximum Length of Standing Long Jump Using Halteres
Based on previously published measurements and simulations, this paper discusses biomechanical issues related to the performance of standing long jump. Using a two-dimensional five segment link modelExpand
Acute Kinematic and Kinetic Augmentation in Horizontal Jump Performance Using Haltere Type Handheld Loading
TLDR
The findings clearly indicate that haltere/handheld loading augments vertical and horizontal force and impulses, which could have a number of interesting training implications if the strength profiling of athletes identify horizontal and/or vertical deficits in force production. Expand
BIOMECHANICS OF STANDING LONG JUMP WITH HADNHELD WEIGHT
INTRODUCTION: Many studies had proved that extra weights was held in the hands of the athletes during the long jump competition(Minetti A Lenoir, Clercq & Laporte, 2005), and some researchers foundExpand
The extraordinary athletic performance of leaping gibbons
TLDR
The gibbons' unusual morphology facilitates a division of labour among the hind limbs, forelimbs and trunk, resulting in modest power requirements compared with more specialized leapers, redefining the estimates of work performance by animals. Expand
The dynamic role of the ilio-sacral joint in jumping frogs
TLDR
It is suggested that the pelvic hinge mechanism is not obligatory for jumping, but rather crucial for the fine tuning of jump trajectory, particularly in complex habitats. Expand
Jump Distance Increases While Carrying Handheld Weights: Impulse, History, and Jump Performance in a Simple Lab Exercise
This laboratory exercise is designed to provide an understanding of the mechanical concept of impulse as it applies to human movement and athletic performance. Students compare jumps performed withExpand
Enhancing Jump Performance With Handheld Loading
TLDR
A review of literature on the effects of handHELD LOADing on jumping performance and practical recommendations for strength and condition are provided. Expand
Kinesiology Analysis of Athletics at the Ancient Olympics and of Performance Differences Between Male and Female Olympic Champions at the Modern Games in Running, Swimming and Rowing
Kinesiology and physics were employed to better understand the performance of male and female athletes in the Ancient and in the Modern Olympic Games. In what we now call the Ancient OlympicsExpand
Jump training in sports medicine Entrenamiento de salto en medicina deportiva
Correspondencia: Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo E-mail: r.ramirez@ulagos.cl Through evolution, several animal species, including humans, have evolved the ability to jump. Indeed, jumping actions are commonExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-6 OF 6 REFERENCES
Mechanical determinants of gradient walking energetics in man.
TLDR
The measured W(ext), the W+ext/W‐ext partitioning and eff‐/eff+ ratio, i.e. the different efficiency of the muscles used as force and brake generators, can explain the metabolic optimum gradient at about ‐10%. Expand
The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle
The hope was recently expressed (Hill 1937, p. 116) that with the development of a more accurate and rapid technique for muscle heat measurement, a much more consistent picture might emerge of theExpand
Eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man
TLDR
A tension restricting neural mechanism, if active during maximal eccentric contractions, could possibly account for the large difference seen between the present eccentric torque-velocity results and the classic results obtained from isolated animal muscle. Expand
Isokinetic Exercise and Assessment
A Brief Introduction to Isokinetics Part I. Theory of lsokinetics: Chapter 1. Terminology and the Isokinetic Torque Curve. Chapter 2. Isokinetic Instrumentation. Chapter 3. Principles of lsokineticExpand
Isokinetic Exercise and Assessment (Human Kinetics
  • Champaign, Illinois,
  • 1993
Supplementary information accompanies this communication on Nature's website. Competing financial interests: declared none