Biomechanics: Deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp

  title={Biomechanics: Deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp},
  author={Sheila N Patek and Wyatt L. Korff and Roy L. Caldwell},
Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O… 
The power of mantis shrimp strikes: interdisciplinary impacts of an extreme cascade of energy release.
  • S. Patek
  • Engineering
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2019
Inspired by both their mechanical capabilities and evolutionary diversity, research on mantis shrimp strikes has provided interdisciplinary and fundamental insights to the fields of elastic mechanisms, fluid dynamics, evolutionary dynamics, contest dynamics, the physics of fast, small systems, and the rapidly-expanding field of bioinspired materials science.
The Stomatopod Telson: Convergent Evolution in the Development of a Biological Shield
Mantis shrimp are aggressive marine crustaceans well known for their rapid and powerful hunting strategies. Less well known, however, is the ability of some species of mantis shrimp to defend
Elastic energy storage in the mantis shrimp's fast predatory strike
The remarkable shapes and mineralization patterns that characterize the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage further reveal a highly integrated mechanical power amplification system based on exoskeletal elastic energy storage.
Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike
The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage.
Smashing mantis shrimp strategically impact shells
Physical modeling demonstrates that mantis shrimp use an impact strategy that maximizes shell damage, and presents a model system for studying the physics and materials of impact fracture in the context of the rich evolutionary history of predator–prey interactions.
Functional morphology, ontogeny and evolution of mantis shrimp‐like predators in the Cambrian
The arrangement of the elbow joint supports the view that the great appendage evolved into the chelicera of Chelicerata sensu stricto, as similar joints are found in various ingroup taxa such as Xiphosura, Opiliones or Palpigradi.
Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp
It is found that spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces.
The Mantis Shrimp Saddle: A Biological Spring Combining Stiffness and Flexibility
Stomatopods are aggressive crustacean predators that use a pair of ultrafast raptorial appendages to strike on prey. This swift movement is driven by a power amplification system comprising
Reappearance of stomatopod Gonodactylus platysoma (Wood-Mason, 1895) after an era from the intertidal region of Chota Balu, South Andaman, India
Mantis Shrimp Gonodactylus platysoma was observed during a survey for seaweed-related macrofauna from the intertidal region of Andamans after a century. The specimen was collected using a scoop net,


Calcified cuticle in the stomatopod smashing limb
One pair of limbs of the mantid shrimp, Gonodactylus, is used to smash hard-shelled prey. The composition and structural features of the cuticle allowing this were examined by microhardness testing,
How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles.
Hydphone measurements in conjunction with time-controlled high-speed imaging of the claw closure demonstrate that the sound is emitted at the cavitation bubble collapse and not on claw closure, and a model for the bubble dynamics based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation quantitatively accounts for the time dependence of the bubble radius and for the emitted sound.
Neuromuscular physiology of the strike mechanism of the mantis shrimp, Hemisquilla†
The rapid strike action is explained not in terms of the rapid contraction of these muscles but in their operation of a mechanical device in the form of a “click-joint,” described previously.
The mechanics and neural control of the prey capture strike in the mantid shrimps Squilla and Hemisquilla
  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie
  • 2004
Electrophysiology and experiments in which the strike has been simulated have shown that the strike is produced by the co-contraction of flexor and extensor muscles in the merus operating a ‘click’ joint.
Fast actions in small animals: springs and click mechanisms
In flight, sound generation, jumping, or predatory strikes arthropods employ different strategies to transform muscular action to the desired movement, while other accessory structures such as snap mechanism or latches with trigger mucles determined the stability and the timing of the instantaneous discharge in catapult mechanisms.
Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles
It is shown that a short, intense flash of light is emitted as the bubble collapses, indicating that extreme pressures and temperatures of at least 5,000 K must exist inside the bubble at the point of collapse.
Tendon elasticity and muscle function.
  • R. M. Alexander
  • Engineering, Biology
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • 2002
Storage of elastic strain energy in muscle and other tissues
The elastic materials involved include muscle in every case, but only in insect flight is the proportion of the energy stored in the muscle substantial.
The River: A Journey Back to the Source of HIV and AIDS
  • S. Lucas
  • Political Science
    BMJ : British Medical Journal
  • 2000
Edward Hooper ![][1] Penguin Press, £25, pp 1070 ISBN 0 713 99335 0 Rating: ![Graphic][2] ![Graphic][3] ![Graphic][4] Does it really matter how AIDS started? Not long after AIDS was described
Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics