Biomechanical analysis of human ligament grafts used in knee-ligament repairs and reconstructions.

@article{Noyes1984BiomechanicalAO,
  title={Biomechanical analysis of human ligament grafts used in knee-ligament repairs and reconstructions.},
  author={Frank R. Noyes and David Lee Butler and Edward S. Grood and Ronald F. Zernicke and Mohamed Safir Hefzy},
  journal={The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume},
  year={1984},
  volume={66 3},
  pages={
          344-52
        }
}
Virtually all types of collagenous tissues have been transferred in and around the knee joint for intra-articular and extra-articular ligament reconstructions. However, the mechanical properties (in particular, strength) of such grafts have not been determined in tissues from young adult donors, where age and disuse-related effects have been excluded. To provide this information, we subjected ligament graft tissues to high-strain-rate failure tests to determine their strength and elongation… 
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The proposed force-setting method of ACL reconstruction resulted in graft forces that were closer to normal than when using current reconstruction meth ods based on isometry and pretension, and allowed better reproducibility of total graft forces among a series of knees.
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Histologic evaluation showed that by 8 months the repaired and augmented anterior cruciate ligaments had healed by bony ingrowth, and interstitial failure occurred during Instron testing.
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