Biomarkers of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.


Urine specimens from patients diagnosed with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) were examined for biomarkers of brevetoxin intoxication. Brevetoxins were concentrated from urine by using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Urine extracts were fractionated by LC, and fractions analyzed for brevetoxins by ELISA. In subsequent LC-MS/MS analyses, several brevetoxin metabolites of B-type backbone were identified, with elution profiles consistent with those of ELISA. The more abundant brevetoxin metabolites in urine were characterized structurally by LC-MS/MS. With the exception of BTX-3, brevetoxin metabolites in urine differed from those found in shellfish and in shellfish meal remnants. Proposed structures of these major urinary metabolites are methylsulfoxy BTX-3, 27-epoxy BTX-3, and reduced BTX-B5. BTX-3 was found in all specimens examined. BTX-3 concentrations in urine, as determined by LC-MS/MS, correlated well with composite toxin measurements by ELISA (r(2)=0.96). BTX-3 is a useful biomarker for confirmation of clinical diagnosis of NSP.

DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.04.175

Cite this paper

@article{Abraham2008BiomarkersON, title={Biomarkers of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.}, author={Ann Mary Abraham and Steven M. Plakas and Leanne J. Flewelling and Kathleen R El Said and Edward L. E. Jester and Hudson R. Granade and K. D. White and Robert W. Dickey}, journal={Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology}, year={2008}, volume={52 2}, pages={237-45} }