Biomarkers of apoptosis: release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, increased 3-nitrotyrosine, and alteration of p53 gene.

@article{AbuQare2001BiomarkersOA,
  title={Biomarkers of apoptosis: release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, increased 3-nitrotyrosine, and alteration of p53 gene.},
  author={Aqel W. Abu-Qare and Mohamed B. Abou-Donia},
  journal={Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews},
  year={2001},
  volume={4 3},
  pages={
          313-32
        }
}
Biomarkers rely on biochemical, histological, morphological, and physiological changes in whole organisms. Their use is becoming an important tool to examine changes at cellular and molecular levels, especially in nucleic acids and proteins. Biomarkers are used to measure exposure to a toxic agent, to detect severity of any toxic response, and to predict the possible outcome. Information on the mechanisms of action of toxicants can allow the development of potential biomarkers of effect and… CONTINUE READING

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