Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of ADHD – Promising Directions

@article{Faraone2014BiomarkersIT,
  title={Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of ADHD – Promising Directions},
  author={Stephen V. Faraone and Cristian Bonvicini and Catia Scassellati},
  journal={Current Psychiatry Reports},
  year={2014},
  volume={16},
  pages={1-20}
}
The etiology and pathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are unclear and a more valid diagnosis would certainly be welcomed. Starting from the literature, we built an hypothetical pyramid representing a putative set of biomarkers where, at the top, variants in DAT1 and DRD4 genes are the best candidates for their associations to neuropsychological tasks, activation in specific brain areas, methylphenidate response and gene expression levels. Interesting data come from… 
Common and specific genes and peripheral biomarkers in children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • C. Bonvicini, S. Faraone, C. Scassellati
  • Biology, Medicine
    The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
  • 2018
TLDR
Through a convergent functional genomics, this review contributes to clarification of which genetic/biological mechanisms differ with age, and some genes/proteins could be potential useful biomarkers to discriminate cADHD from aADHD.
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In view of the need for easily accessible biomarkers, we evaluated in ADHD children the epigenetic status of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) in the SLC6A3 gene, coding for human dopamine transporter
Imaging genetics in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related neurodevelopmental domains: state of the art
TLDR
It is found that IG studies on ADHD generally focus on dopaminergic genes and the structure of basal ganglia using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Genetics in the ADHD Clinic: How Can Genetic Testing Support the Current Clinical Practice?
TLDR
A brief review of the genome-wide and candidate gene association studies with a focus on the clinical aspects, summarizing findings of ADHD disease risk, ADHD core symptoms as dimensional traits, and other traits frequently associated with ADHD which may contribute to the susceptibility to other comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Blood-Bourne MicroRNA Biomarker Evaluation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of Han Chinese Individuals: An Exploratory Study
TLDR
As measured in peripheral blood, miRNA-based biomarkers can aid in the differentiation of ADHD in clinical settings and demonstrate good validity in differentiating ADHD patients from control subjects.
From gene to disorder in ADHD: Mapping mechanisms at different levels of complexity
TLDR
Among other findings, it is able to show that ADHD and the intracranial volume are significantly negatively correlated at the global genetic level, resembling earlier phenotypic observations.
SHR/NCrl rats as a model of ADHD can be discriminated from controls based on their brain, blood, or urine metabolomes
TLDR
In the brain, SHR/NCrl rats displayed modifications in metabolic pathways related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress further supporting their importance in the pathophysiology of ADHD bringing news arguments in favor of the Neuroenergetic theory of ADHD.
Brain imaging genetics in ADHD and beyond – Mapping pathways from gene to disorder at different levels of complexity
Pilot study indicate role of preferentially transmitted monoamine oxidase gene variants in behavioral problems of male ADHD probands
TLDR
It may be inferred that the MAOA and MAOB variants may contribute to the etiology of ADHD in the Indo-Caucasoid population and could be responsible for higher occurrence of hyperactivity in the boys.
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