Biomarkers in drug discovery and development.

  title={Biomarkers in drug discovery and development.},
  author={Ray Bakhtiar},
  journal={Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods},
  volume={57 2},
  • Ray Bakhtiar
  • Published 2008 in
    Journal of pharmacological and toxicological…
Biomarkers have shown promising utilities at various stages of the pharmaceutical R & D. With the recent technological advancements and the introduction of protein and gene arrays, high performance instrumentation (e.g., high-field nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometers), and bioinformatics, decisions on safety and efficacy criteria can be made with a higher degree of confidence. However, there is a scarcity of robust and valid biomarkers to accelerate the drug… CONTINUE READING