Biomarkers for the clinical management of breast cancer: international perspective.

  title={Biomarkers for the clinical management of breast cancer: international perspective.},
  author={Neill R Patani and Lesley-Ann Martin and Mitch Dowsett},
  journal={International journal of cancer},
  volume={133 1},
The higher incidence of breast cancer in developed countries has been tempered by reductions in mortality, largely attributable to mammographic screening programmes and advances in adjuvant therapy. Optimal systemic management requires consideration of clinical, pathological and biological parameters. Oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are established biomarkers evaluated at diagnosis, which identify cardinal subtypes… CONTINUE READING


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