Biomarkers and Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment: Are There More Questions Than Answers?

@inproceedings{Hagger2006BiomarkersAI,
  title={Biomarkers and Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment: Are There More Questions Than Answers?},
  author={Josephine A. Hagger and Malcolm B. Jones and Paul M. Leonard and Richard Owen and Tamara S Galloway},
  year={2006}
}
Abstract The introduction of the European Commission's Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) established a new era in environmental risk assessment. In addition to incorporating the compliance of chemical quality standards, the key objective of the WFD is the general protection of the aquatic environment in its entirety. This new approach emphasizes the need for an integrated environmental risk assessment and offers the potential for the incorporation of biological effects measures… Expand
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