Biology of immune responses to vaccines in elderly persons.

  title={Biology of immune responses to vaccines in elderly persons.},
  author={Birgit Weinberger and Dietmar Herndler-Brandstetter and Angelika Schwanninger and Daniela Weiskopf and Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein},
  journal={Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America},
  volume={46 7},
With increasing age, the human immune system undergoes characteristic changes, termed immunosenescence, which lead to increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases and to insufficient protection following vaccination. Functional defects and altered frequencies of innate and adaptive immune cells impair local responses at the site of vaccine injection, hamper the generation of primary responses to neoantigens, prevent the effective induction of memory lymphocytes, and decrease the… CONTINUE READING


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