Biology of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue

@article{Thorbecke1994BiologyOG,
  title={Biology of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue},
  author={G. Jeanette Thorbecke and Ashok R. Amin and Vincent K. Tsiagbe},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={1994},
  volume={8},
  pages={832 - 840}
}
Germinal centers in lymphoid tissue are the sites of generation of memory B cells undergoing isotype switching and somatic mutation in their Ig genes. Their formation cannot be induced by stimuli other than immunogenic ones. It seems likely that in the function and possibly also in the formation of germinal centers, one important factor is the localization of immune complexes with fixed complement on the surface of follicular dendritic cells. CD4+ T cells, located primarily in the “apical light… 
T and B Lymphocytes in Germinal Centers
TLDR
The signals that activate migration from the PALS of an activated B cell to populate a primary follicle and form a germinal center reaction are incompletely elucidated and discussed further in chapter i.
Germinal Center Founder Cells Display Propensity for Apoptosis before Onset of Somatic Mutation
TLDR
Unmutated sIgM+IgD+CD38+ tonsillar B cells may represent germinal center founder cells in which the program for apoptotic cell death is triggered before the onset of somatic mutation, allowing the selection of the germline antibody repertoire at an early stage.
Regulation of adhesion and migration in the germinal center microenvironment.
TLDR
It is concluded that integrin regulation during antigen specific B cell differentiation involves cross-talk between the HGF/SF-c-Met pathway and CD44-HS.
Germinal center development
TLDR
Using a set of surface markers Including igD and CD38, human tonsillar B cells were classified into discrete subpopulations showing that programmed ceil death is set before somatic mutations, possibly providing an efficient way for affinity maturation.
Germinal centre cell kinetics
TLDR
This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the cell kinetic process of activation, proliferation, differentiation, and death of germinal centre cells, which are beginning to provide important insights into the regulation of this highly complex reaction.
Requirement for reverse immune surveillance for the growth of germinal center-derived murine lymphomas.
TLDR
Reverse immune surveillance of germinal center-derived B cell lymphoma cells and the host immune system in SjL/J mice finds that interaction with LTbeta-R on follicular dendritic cells or other stromal elements facilitates tumor growth by preventing apoptosis of the malignant B cells.
Generation of memory B cells and plasma cells in vitro
TLDR
Results indicate that CD40 ligand directs the differentiation of germinal center B cells toward memory B cells rather than toward plasma cells.
Superantigens related to B cell hyperplasia
TLDR
It is speculated that themtv-29-encoded vSAg may be expressed on germinal center B cells, even in young SJL mice, and that the characteristic chronic B cell hyperplasia seen in this strain is driven by the cytokines produced by responding Vβ16+ T cells.
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References

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TLDR
The occurrence of dissociation during the induction phase of the primary immune response suggested that the lymphoid cells of the germinal centers might be precursors of the specific antibody-producing cells.
Germinal center T cells are distinct helper-inducer T cells.
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TLDR
Two-color flow cytometric analysis of suspended human tonsillar lymphocytes is employed in order to define more precisely the immunologic features of germinal center cells (GCC), and PNA+ cells in suspension appeared to represent GCC.
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TLDR
Results demonstrate that GC must recruit and retain Ag-specific T cells, thus implicating the GC as an in vivo site where Ag- specific T and B cells interact.
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TLDR
Dual‐fluorescence studies on small lymphocytes confirm the presence of bcl‐2 protein in mitochondria but show that this is also present in other extra‐nuclear areas.
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TLDR
This chapter is concerned with the function of one of the most prominent features of peripheral lymphoid tissues, which has fascinated histologists for many years, namely the germinal center.
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TLDR
Germinal centers form in lymphoid tissue draining a site of soluble antigen injection, starting approximately on day 4 and reaching peak development by d 10 after the injection, while maturing plasmabiasts arise earlier than the GC.
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TLDR
It appears that immunization of nu/nu mice may lead to an early step of B cell activation and memory development even though the T lymphocytes in these mice are incompetent to provide help for Ab formation.
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