Biology and mating behavior of Xylocopa virginica L. (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae)

@article{Gerling2004BiologyAM,
  title={Biology and mating behavior of Xylocopa virginica L. (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae)},
  author={Dan Gerling and Henry R. Hermann},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={3},
  pages={99-111}
}
SummaryThe biology and behavior of Xylocopa virginica L. were followed in the area of Athens, Georgia (USA) from August 1973 until September 1974. Several nests were X-rayed regularly during the developmental period of the bees, and information about the life cycle and development was obtained. The bees emerge in June and stay in their nests with their sibs throughout the summer, fall, and winter, leaving only occasionally on warm days to search for nectar as food. In March and April males… 

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The Carpenter bee, Xylocopa varipuncta, appears to have evolved a dispersed lek mating system, where males leave the natal nest in the late afternoon in March and April to hover in the crowns of non-flowering trees growing in desert washes.

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Colony Social Organisation and Alternative Social Strategies in the Eastern Carpenter Bee, Xylocopa virginica

  • M. Richards
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Insect Behavior
  • 2011
TLDR
The eastern carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica, can nest either solitarily or in groups, and most nests are social, containing groups of two to five adult females.

Cooperative Nesting in the Multivoltine Large Carpenter Bee Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Apoidea: Anthophoridae): Do Helpers Gain or Lose to Solitary Females?

TLDR
Evidence is presented to show that subordinate behaviour can have an adaptive value and can ultimately be beneficial through nest inheritance by the subordinate bee.

Eastern Carpenter Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Nest Structure, Nest Cell Provisions, and Trap Nest Acceptance in Rhode Island

TLDR
Analysis of pollen provisions in Xylocopa virginica (L.) nests in southern Rhode Island showed that this species produced pollen loaves from 21 different genera of plants in 2016, 19 in 2017, and 39 in 2018, which indicates that understanding the nesting and foraging habits of X. virginica will help to manage natural populations for pollination services.
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