Techniques of Lipidology: Isolation, Analysis, and Identification of Lipids, Elsevier
- M. Kates
The medicinal plant Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. [syn. Ledebouriella divaricata (Turcz.) Hiroe] (Apiaceae) inhabits Mongolia, China, Korea, eastern Siberia (Republic of Buryatia, Zabaikalsky Krai) and the Russian Far East (Sakhalin Oblast, Priamurye, Primorye) and has been used for several thousand years in traditional medicine of China, Japan, and Korea . It possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity including anticarcinogenic and neuroprotective [2–5]. Plants collected in the Republic of Buryatia, Zaibaikalsky Krai, and Mongolia in addition to pharmacy raw material acquired in Sinin (China) were studied (Table 1). The lipid fraction was obtained via modified Bligh–Dyer extraction  followed by acidic methanolysis. The yield was 2.69–17.46% calculated for absolutely dry raw material (adr). The chemical composition of the lipid fraction was studied using an Agilent 7890 GC with a 7000 C triple quadrupole mass spectrometer as the detector, an HP-5ms quartz column (30 m 0.25 mm), He carrier gas (constant flow rate 1.0 mL/min), electron-impact ionization at 70 eV, and scan range 5–750 amu. The percent content of fatty acids (FA) was calculated from GC peak areas using the Mass Hunter B.06.00 program without correction coefficients. Qualitative analysis was based on comparing retention times and total mass spectra of the corresponding pure compounds using the NIST14 library and standard mixtures Bacterial Acid Methyl Ester (BAME) mix (CP Mix, Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA) and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (Supelco 37 comp. FAME Mix, 10 mg/mL in CH2Cl2). The lipid fraction of the analyzed samples contained 22 FA, sterols, and polyyne-type compounds. Polyacetylenic metabolites possess various types of biological activity. Their localization in root outer layers is consistent with their role as an antifungal barrier, especially in young plants . Other important properties include cytotoxicity against human tumor cells , anti-inflammatory activity (nuclear factor Nrf2 activators) , and neurotoxic activity (GABA-ergic receptor modulators) . Gradient elution by various solvents was used for S. divaricata roots (sample 2 in Table 1). The obtained extracts were separated by column chromatography over silica gel. The major constituents of the root petroleum-ether extract were a fatty oil and panaxynol (synonyms falcarinol and carotatoxin) [3(R)-(9Z)-hepta-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3-ol]. This polyacetylene was isolated pure by column chromatography in a yield of 4.72% of the adr mass. The second polyacetylene constituent was panaxadiol, which was also isolated by column chromatography and was a minor constituent of this plant. The spectral and analytical data for panaxynol and panaxadiol agreed with those published [11–13]. Linoleic (25.32–48.49%), oleic (8.85–39.56%), and palmitic acids (3.90–52–50%) were the principal ones in all samples. The number of unsaturated FA was equal to that of saturated ones. However, the total amount of polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in many samples was greater than that of the saturated FA (SFA). Lipid fractions of roots and herb differed in quantitative FA contents. Thus, the ratio of unsaturated FA to saturated FA was 7:1 in roots of S. divaricata collected in Russia and Mongolia and 6:4 in the aerial parts of these same specimens. The lipid fraction isolated from the herb had an elevated amount of palmitic acid (16:0) and a reduced amount of linoleic acid (18:2 6).