Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications

  title={Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications},
  author={Yves Frenot and Steven L. Chown and Jennie Whinam and Patricia M. Selkirk and Peter Convey and Mary L. Skotnicki and Dana M. Bergstrom},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
Alien microbes, fungi, plants and animals occur on most of the sub‐Antarctic islands and some parts of the Antarctic continent. These have arrived over approximately the last two centuries, coincident with human activity in the region. Introduction routes have varied, but are largely associated with movement of people and cargo in connection with industrial, national scientific program and tourist operations. The large majority of aliens are European in origin. They have both direct and… 

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  • 2011
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